EXPOSURE MINERAL PRODUCTS FROM THE HISTORY OF GEOLOGICAL AMIATA

Cinnabar
Mercury sulfide, HgS, is the most important mineral for the extraction of mercury. Extracted from the deposit of the mine of Abbadia San Salvatore, the most important of the 'Amiata area, reaching up to 470 meters deep.

The Cinnabar is a mineral of hydrothermal genesis, which is the form that is a result of the cooling and consolidation of the fluids magmatic residues

In the case of strawberries is cinnabar combined with calcite crystals.

Cinnabar was already used at the time of the Roman Empire as a pigment and cosmetics, and for the extraction of mercury

Calcite is a mineral consisting of neutral calcium carbonate. It is the main constituent of limestone and marble.

The most important deposits are located at Almadén in Spain, in Italy in the Monte Amiata area and in Idrija in Slovenia.

Metacinnabarite, blackish color mercury sulfide present in the Amiata Bagnore mine

In painting the Cinnabar, whether natural or synthesized, was used to produce the vermilion pigment.

Cinnabar with mineral concretions with rounded and compact surface

Minerals of Amiata
Epsomite or Epsom salt is magnesium sulfate, also known as bitter salt, owes its name to the mineral reserves discovered in the homonymous town in England, UK

The Fluorite, is a rather common mineral composed of calcium fluoride.
In nature the fluorite is usually found in hydrothermal veins and cavities of metamorphic and igneous rocks.

Gypsum is a sedimentary rock of chemical origin
Quartz is a common constituent of magmatic intrusive rocks
Barite is to deposit the form of hydrothermal solutions, especially at elevated temperatures

Calcite of sedimentary origin, it may also originate in metamorphic and igneous rocks, where it is deposited in the fractures with circulating high-temperature fluid.

Quartz and Amethyst, this belongs to the family of crystalline quartz and owes its violet color in the presence of traces of iron. It is formed through hydrothermal process.

The Amethyst is one of the most popular stones in crystal. Greeks and Romans believed that it is an excellent remedy against the effects of alcohol.

The stibnite, or antimony sulfide is mostly of hydrothermal origin.
It has an important role in many metal alloys, in electric batteries, in the healthcare industry, textile, rubber and glas.

Mercury
The specific weight of mercury is fourteen times greater than that of water. Lead floats on mercury.

The iron bomboles which contained mercury were cylindrical in shape with a capacity of 2,7 L, threaded closure cap screwing and weighed 34,5 Kg of mercury, standard weight established for the trade.

Davide Franceschelli explains what it is, from what we get and what are the uses of mercury.

Realgar is a mineral, arsenic sulfide, ruby red mass and orange yellow powder. It is formed in volcanic exhalations and hydrothermal mineralization.

The celestite is a mineral consisting of strontium sulphate. It is located in the limestone and sedimentary soils, but can also have hydrothermal origin

The orthoclase of the alkali feldspar group is the name of an important group of minerals that probably make up 60% of the earth's crust.

The Marcasite is an iron sulfide with golden metallic color. It is found as a primary mineral in sedimentary rocks and in hydrothermal veins of low temperature.

Dawnsonite comes in the form of deposits or in masses of minutes laminar crystals, white, radial.
It has its origin in hydrothermal veins of low temperature, generally in the veins of cinnabar.

Diatomaceous earth, or diatomite, is a biogenic siliceous sedimentary rock. It is the fossil remnant of microscopic algae diatom family.

Credits: Story

We thank the Miners Association Museum through which exists and endures the Mining Museum of the Monte Amiata in Santa Fiora.
Especially Adorno Franceschelli and Simone Beccari for minerals and
Lucia Franceschelli for processing.

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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