A project to give visibility about how the state and civil society act concerning the massacres in the prison institutions.
In 2014, the "Study Group on the Crime and Sanction" in Getulio Vargas ended a long search rescue of administrative, judicial (civil and criminal) and international processes about the Carandiru Massacre. In partnership with ANDHEP, the project Carandiru´s Memory Massacre emerged, with the objective of providing a digital platform documentation collected during the research project and gather photos, videos and documents of all kinds about what happened on October 2 in 1992.
A Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry installed in the Assembly a day after the event collected testimonies and documents in order to clarify the facts of the 02 of October. From the steps of the deputies that PCI, the debates that took place in the Assembly revealed positions as of support or the rejection of police action, tension that could be observed since then also in civil society.
In terms of criminal cases, the prosecution of police officers involved took place in 2013 and 2014, divided into 5 different jury trials. After this delay of more than 21 years, police officers were sentenced to over 150 years in prison. "(...) The penalty imposed on the accused shall be served in closed original rules".
During the trial sessions, the official versions was requestioned. In the testimonies of survivors, it was stated that the death toll was much higher than 111. The former inmate Antonio Carlos Dias reported that he saw bodies being transported in trucks and that the death toll was twice that reported.
One of the biggest challenges of the project was to have access to documents of the Military Police. The institution repeatedly denied requests for access to information made by the research team, but thanks to the Access to Information Act, was confirmed that none of the police officers involved in the operation was investigated internally or liable for Internal Affairs of the Military Police.
The site report recounts the damage found in pavilions: shots brands of police and bloodstains on the walls. According to the report, in several cases the prisoners were trapped and killed inside their cells.
In their testimonies, the police claimed that responded to shots of detainees. The hypothesis that there were firearms inside the prison is strongly questioned by the Prosecutor.
Part of the families of the survivors sought compensation for moral and material damages in civil liability cases. According to a survey of the "Study Group on the Crime and the Sanction" in FGV, much of the compensation was granted for more than a decade after the Justice Massacre. Families still waited for yet another decade to have a decision supporting the indemnification. They waited in a queue common to all state creditors (the famous "line of writ"). It was not possible to determine how many families actually received the amounts of compensation. Sometimes the judgments sought to justify the police action as necessary to contain the "rebellion of the prisoners." In most cases, the values set in the first instance were reduced on appeal, because they were "bandit" or "stuck".
In 2012, in an article published by Estadão, experts tried to reconstruct the narrative of the massacre 20 years later. The media played an important role in the dissemination of documents and criticism of the prison system. Bruno Paes Manso interview the journalist Marcelo Godoy to say that what he saw on October 2, 1992.
Internationally Brazil received severe criticism from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights for failing to take appropriate legal steps to clarify the facts, to identify the authorities responsible and compensate the families of the dead. In addition to the "massacre" terms, the Commission refers to "widespread extermination" and "indiscriminate slaughter" to describe how the victims were executed. The report was published in 2000 and since today these recommendations have not been responded. The report further recommends that Brazil take steps to bottlenecking of the prison system, preventing the outbreaks of violence and to invest in peaceful solutions to conflicts As we know, the situation of the Brazilian prison system deteriorated significantly since this report. The rate of incarceration (imprisonment of number per 100 thousand inhabitants) grew 317.9% from 1992-2013 and there is a deficit of at least 231 thousand prison vacancies.
The documentary "Between Light and Shadow" investigates the violence and human nature from the story of characters who have crossed their destinations in the Carandiru complex.
The film features the steps of the duo rappers 509-E, an actress called Sophie and a judge who believes in a more dignified way of rehabilitation for citizens in custody.
"Between Light and Shadow" won numerous awards.
The film "Carandiru" directed by Hector Babenco and based on the book written by the doctor of the House of Detention, Drauzio Varella, was one of the most successful film productions in Brazil. Varella recounts his experiences with the harsh reality of Brazilian prisons in an AIDS prevention work carried out in the House of Detention. Both the book and the movie end with the narrative of the massacre. This stretch of the film was projected on one of the trial sessions the Jury Court.
In 1993, artist Nuno Ramos we objected to the depersonalization of the "111" installation at the Art Biennial. The artist has placed 111 bricks on the floor with the name of each of the dead prisoners. In the picture, the detail of the wall where they were fixed excerpt from the book "Cujo" and boxes with various coatings containing ashes of biblical psalms.
The implosion of the pavilions that gave space to the Youth Park took place in 2002. The Brazilian society is still awaiting the creation of a "memory space" on the park.
The book "Carandiru is (not) a thing of the past": a balance on the processes, institutions and narratives 23 years after the massacre, with the research report and 20 texts of various authors, will be released on October 1, 2015 at the Law School of Getulio Vargas Foundation in São Paulo.
Exhibit in Google Cultural Institute: Ana Luiza Bandeira
Memory Carandiru Massacre Team
Guilherme de Almeida
Ana Luiza Bandeira