BCE 800000 -  BCE 300 

Archaeologists have established that the area of modern-day Mongolia has been inhabited for at least 800,000 years.This first hall has on display stone and bronze tools,  as  well  as  instruments  for  worship  and religious  ceremonies  that were created and used by people from the  Iron  & Bronze Ages, and before...
PALEOLITHIC  800,000 – 15,000 BCE
The Paleolithic was the earliest part of the Stone Age, when early human beings made chipped-stone tools.Ancient man also used bones, horns and the incisors of large animals as tools. The oldest prehistoric artefacts in Mongolia are the stone tools found in Tsagaan agui or White Cave in Bayanhongor aimag, which date back to nearly 800,000 BCE.

Stone tool
Paleolithic Period
(800,000 – 120,000 BCE)
Tsagaan agui (White Cave),
Bayanlig sum, Bayankhongor aimag

MESOLITHIC 15,000 – 8000 BCE
Known as the Great Migration of Mankind, in this period people started moving northwards. People created bows and arrows and domesticated both plants and animals. Mesolithic archaeological remains and relics are generally very rare, not only in Mongolia but throughout the world.
NEOLITHIC 8000 – 3000 BCE
The latest period of the Stone Age ~ the Neolithic, is characterised by the development of settled agriculture and the use of polished stone tools and weapons.

Necklace
Neolithic
(4000 - 3000 BCE)
During the Neolithic period, people began to bury the dead by placing them in a seated position in special underground holes, reflecting their belief in an afterlife. Such burial sites have been found in the eastern part of Mongolia.
Woman’s Grave, Tamsagbulag, Dornod aimag

Stone tools for milling grain
Neolithic Period (4000 - 3000 BCE)
Dornod aimag
Grain milling tools are among the most important objects in the Museum’s collection. An essential change made in the Neolithic period was that humans began to produce food rather than just searching for it.

Deer Stone 
In the middle of the 1st hall, the Museum has a replica Deer Stone that Museum archaeologists made in 2004 from an original that is kept in Uushigiin uvur, Burentogtokh sum, Khuvsgul aimag. Deer Stones are a type of monument first seen in parts of Eurasia during the late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. Since their initial identification around 100 years ago, scholars have found a total of 900 Deer Stones. Approximately ninety per cent of all the registered Deer Stone monuments are located within the territory of Mongolia, as it is the nucleus of these monuments and the centre from which they spread. A well-cut, long, oblong stone with its surface area divided horizontally into three bands: in the upper section are depicted images of the sun and moon; while in the middle section there are mainly deer, leaping and flying. The lower part is decorated with carvings of knives, swords, bows and quivers, battle-axes, whetstones, hooks, mirrors and so on. Some examples of these Deer Stones have a carved human head and face in the upper section. The tallest Deer Stone is about 4 metres high,  the shortest measures about 40 cm high.
Bronze Age 3000 – 700 BCE
During the Bronze Age, animal-patterned artefacts were widespread throughout Eurasia. The handle of this dagger - ending in the shape of a wild mountain sheep’s head - is the classic animal style found in Bronze Age Mongolia. Representations in the animal style, amongst them rams, ibex, and argal wild sheep, go back as far as Stone Age rock paintings. This artefact is registered on the Mongolian National Treasures list.

Bronze dagger
44 x 3.7 cm
Bronze Age 1200 - 900 BCE
Khovd aimag

Iron Age 700 – 300 BCE
During the Early Iron Age (600-300 BCE) the ancient nomads of Mongolia discovered and began to use iron. One of the major archaeological sites of this period is Chandmani Mountain in the Uvs aimag. During the excavation of the irregularly structured burials at this site, archaeologists found numerous unique objects of bronze and iron, as well as multiple burials in wooden coffins.

Bronze cauldron
Early Iron Age
(700 - 400 BCE)
near the Kharmaan River, Khuvsgul aimag, in 2003
Numerous bowl-shaped bronze cauldrons were found in South Siberia so it is likely that this type of cauldron originated from the Scythian culture which dates to 7th - 5th centuries. Similar ancient cauldrons have been found throughout central Asia, Mongolia and northern China. The earliest of these is dated to the 8th century and originated in China. They then spread to the west as the Eurasian people settled near the Black Sea. During the Hunnu period, bowl-shaped cauldrons were popularly used in Mongolia and commonly found in Hunnu burials. In archaeological research this type of cauldron is therefore called the Hunnu cauldron.

Tiger-shaped ornament
Early Iron Age
(600-300 BCE)
Uvs aimag
This ornament has a cross loop on the other side, which can be used to make it stand upright or to be attached to something else, easily.

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