In 2017, the National Constitution Center featured the following artifacts — selections from its own collection and institutions nationwide to highlight landmark Supreme Court cases. Learn how everyday Americans made their voices heard by going before the nation’s highest court.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
This notice indicated the date for taking statements in the case of Dred Scott and his wife Harriet, who were suing for their freedom after residing in free territory. These depositions did not convince the jury of their free status. Eventually, the judge granted a new trial, and the case was taken to the Supreme Court. The justices ultimately denied the Scotts' request for freedom.
The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
Used in the Slaughterhouse Cases, this illustration identified the location of slaughterhouses along the Mississippi River. After Louisiana granted a monopoly over the meat-slaughtering industry to one company, local butchers argued that the state had violated individual rights protected under the 14th Amendment. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled in favor of the monopoly.
Schenck v. United States (1919)
“Help us wipe out this stain upon the Constitution!” Charles Schenck, a Socialist Party leader in Philadelphia, distributed this leaflet to encourage repeal of the draft. Schenck was arrested for violating the Espionage Act, a law that restricted individuals from undermining the war effort. The Supreme Court unanimously upheld his conviction.
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
While interned in an Arizona relocation center, California resident Fuju Sasaki handmade this game of strategy. His family was forced to relocate in 1942, when Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the internment of individuals of Japanese descent. The Korematsu case challenged this executive order, but the Supreme Court upheld the president’s wartime decision.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
In this press release, the NAACP announced its decision to appeal the Topeka, Kansas, case in which a federal court upheld segregated school facilities. Along with the NAACP, the father of third-grader Linda Brown challenged the ruling and took it to the Supreme Court. The case resulted in a unanimous decision that struck down school segregation.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
In Mapp v. Ohio, the Supreme Court extended Fourth Amendment protections to criminal defendants in state trials. Justice Harlan wrote the dissenting opinion, the draft of which is seen here. He believed the Court was misguided in its ruling on unlawful searches and seizures, arguing that the actual issue concerned the First Amendment, not the Fourth.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
From prison, Clarence Gideon wrote this letter to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) regarding his legal representation before the Supreme Court. Gideon was denied an attorney during his original trial for burglary, so he asked the Court to hear his case. They agreed, ruling that defendants like Gideon must also be guaranteed the right to counsel in state courts.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Carried by policemen, this card includes the “Miranda warning,” a result of Miranda v. Arizona. The case involved Ernesto Miranda, a suspect who was interrogated by police and provided a confession — without being read his rights and without an attorney present. The Supreme Court ruled that criminal suspects in custody must be informed of their Fifth Amendment rights.
Loving v. Virginia (1967)
Compiled for the appeal of Loving, this statement identified the key questions in the case involving an interracial couple who married in Washington, D.C. Upon returning to Virginia, they were arrested and jailed. The Supreme Court found interracial marriage bans to be unconstitutional — a unanimous decision handed down 50 years ago in 2017.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
This peace-sign armband was worn by members of the Tinker family to protest the Vietnam War. John and Mary Beth Tinker wore their armbands to public school but were suspended after refusing to remove them. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of a student’s right to free speech, as long as it does not disrupt the classroom.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
The Roe v. Wade decision sparked intense public debate, as shown by these buttons representing the pro-life and pro-choice movements. In this controversial case, the Supreme Court ruled that the 14th Amendment protected privacy rights — including a woman’s right to have an abortion.
This exhibit was developed and designed by the National Constitution Center.