A royal procession of the Joseon dynasty depicted in the “Painting of the Royal Procession to Hwaseong on the Eight-panel Folding Screen(華城陵行圖 屛風).”
“The Procession across Hangang River on a Pontoon Bridge” depicts the procession from the temporary palace in Noryang across the Hangang River on its way to Yongsan. The palanquin of Lady Hyegyeonggung Hong in the middle of the bridge is shown passing the red gate hongsalmun(紅虄門), followed by the king on horseback. The palanquins of King Jeongjo’s sisters are waiting to cross the bridge in front of the Noryang temporary palace. A total of 36 boats were brought together to make the pontoon bridge, each decorated with flags of five colors. The image of the procession surrounded by onlookers is vividly captured in this painting.
The flag can be classified according to the painted decoration. The four animals are symbolic guards of the four cardinal directions. Their flags began to accompany royal processions during the Tang dynasty in China, and were used in the great processions daega nobu, formal processions beopga nobu, and military campaigns during the Joseon dynasty.
The front royal band usually consisted of conical oboes[taepyeongso], metal horns[nabal], conches[nagak], drums[buk], doubleheaded barrel drums[janggu], gongs[jing], small cymbals[jabara], and brass percussion instruments[unra].
The usage of taepyeongso included not only processional music but was also performed in ceremonies at the Royal Ancestral Shrine, rural nongak(農樂) performance, shaman gut rituals, and Buddhist ceremonies.
The ceremonial armours were ornamental axes, swords, and fans that created shade, all of which were supported on a pole that was two meters in height. Among them made of wood, these large ornamental swords for royal processions were each colored in gold and silver on which auspicious symbolic patterns were painted.
The ceremonial armours were ornamental axes, swords, and fans that created shade, all of which were supported on a pole that was two meters in height. Among them these trapezoidal with round corners ceremonial fans are made of red silk. An identical pair of phoenixes is painted on each of the front and back sides, and the fan’s edge is bordered by a silk streamer.
The ceremonial armours were ornamental axes, swords, and fans that created shade, all of which were supported on a pole that was two meters in height. Among them these circular ceremonial fans are made of red silk pasted over layers of paper. The fan with a pair of dragons features ascending blue and descending yellow dragons identically painted on each side.
A high vehicle standing on a single wheel pulled by two persons, this palanquin unique to Korea was invented during King Sejong’s reign for the exclusive use of officials of the second rank and above. Military officers were not permitted to ride it, and as symbols of authority, the high palanquins were also used by the princes and the spouses of the princesses.
Newly introduced during the Korean Empire, the entire body of this palanquin is decorated with phoenix designs. The two-tiered roof is topped by a gourd-shaped finial which is surrounded by eight phoenixes, and each side of the lower roof is decorated with painted cloud patterns and hanging tassels from the mouths of the phoenixes at the roof corners.
NATIONAL PALACE MUSEUM OF KOREA