From 18 April to 5 July 2015, Monnaie de Paris presents "Musée d'Art Moderne – Département des Aigles" by Marcel Broodthaers, curated by Chiara Parisi in collaboration with Maria Gilissen Broodthaers.
Marcel Broodthaers: "What I especially like in this winter garden is the confrontation with th public garden that you see by the window. How do you like my winter garden? Are the chairs too hard? I don't know. We are on a red carpet. Are you happy or maybe you would like a drink or some music? I don't know."
Palm Trees of "Jardin d'Hiver" in Belgium
Marcel Broodthaers: "There is no palm tree in Belgium, except in winter gardens. But if suddenly there were palm trees in Belgium, I wouldn't be surprised given how odd this country is. A palm trees forest in Belgium. Yes. I could definitely see it."
The Camel in the first version of "Jardin d'Hiver"
Marce Broodthaers: "My country is both very boring and extremly funny because we can do things here that we can't do anywhere else. The zoo lends me a camel that I tooko in front of the exhibition space. It was filmed like that, in relation to this exotic garden; like a relation between two exotisms. The one we are used to and a camel which is not in its regular place but still considered in Europe as an exotic animal. It's an animal living into the desert."
The levels of the camel's representation
Marcel Broodthaers: "Anyway, in the movie, we see the camel in the movie on a screen, but then we see it again in a fake reality with is a reality of representation too. So a relation is necessarily established between two ways of representation. There lays a method to criticize the current situation."
The camel and the beauty
Marcel Broodthaers: "For me, the camel represents ths incommunication. The camel is the beauty of the animal. I would say that the rest, the palm tree and the museum, is no interest to me. I would say, I don't say, do I? Let's be clear about it. But for me, the camel is the beauty. And the beauty is like in Baudelaire's poem: "I am beautiful, ô mortals! like a dream of stone"."
"This piece has already been exhibited, but in a different form. It has become the fuse for DECOR which we can now characterize by the idea of an object which has been returned to its real function that is that the object is not considered in itself as a work of art."
Extract from the catalogue L’Angélus de Daumier, Paris 1975.
The title of this exhibition is a reference to the painting "L'Angélus" by Millet and to the 19th Century cartoonist and caricaturist : Daumier.
Marcel Broodthaers: " We do Wonder why Daumier never painted an Angélus."
"The Angélus by Degas. I can't really see the two characters in Millet's painting dressed with tutu. I really can't see. Daumier, yes. No, not Degas. Toulouse-Lautrec, yes. I will end up liking Degas. Yes. After all. Next year, it will be the Angélus by Degas. Yes, after all, I like this idea of an Angélus by Degas!"
The edition Musée - Museum (1972) (5) harkens back to the Section XIXe siècle with postcards of two paintings by Ingres, La Grande Odalisque and Le Bain Turc, and Les Dormeuses by Courbet. A second edition, copies 61/100 to 100/100, includes two postcards of paintings by Ingres, Portrait of the Violinist Paganini, and Portrait of Madame Victor Baltard. As in many other works, Marcel Broodthaers payed homage to the great masters and highlights their place in the history of art to illustrate his reflection on the museum and the work of art (painting).
Are these plaques so uneasy to read?
"Reading them becomes hard because the text looks like an image and vice versa. Stereotyped text and image are definied by the plastic technic. And the reading depends of a double level - each level belongs to a negativ attitude which is peculiar to the artistic attitude. Don't place the message only on one side, neither image or text. It means refusing to give a clear message as if the artist could not do it and by extension no Producer economically interested. Here, there would be an opening to a polemic. According to me, it can't be any direct relation between art and the message and even less if the message is a political one without succombing to a trick. Without sinking. I would rather sign some strange hoax without using this endorsement".
Marcel Broodthaers: "This museum is called Museum of Modern Art - Department of Eagles. It is already composed by several sections: a "19th Century Section", a "17th Century Section", a "Litterary Section". So I would like to found another one."
How would you call it?
Marcel Broodthaers: "Since the museum is called "Department of Eagles", I was thinking about "La Fontaine Section" or the "Section of Figures". I would very much like "La Fontaine Section" because I really like fables, but the eagle, since the museum is called "Department of Eagles"..."
You can find eagles in La Fontaine's fables....
Marcel Broodthaers "You can find eagles in La Fontaine's fables but these eagles do not suit me."
Marcel Broodthaers: "Listen up. Here, in Book two "The Eagle and Bettle". It is about an eagle chasing a rabit, a beetle try to argue for the rabbit's life and asks for the eagle's mercy. As an answer, the eagles eats the rabit. And the beetle is offended.
So here is the text:
"The beetle's fury now awoke
She to the nest of absent eagle rushed ;
Her eggs so loved, her dearest hopes, she crushed,
Yes, every darling egg she broke.
The eagle came to her now dreary home,
Loud, loud she screamed, but what was worst of all,
Knew not on whom to let her vengeance fall ;
With sad complaints along the skies she'd roam,
Childless that year she wept her loss in vain."
So obviously, for La Fontaine, this eagle is almost a symbol of maternity. Whereas for me, the eagle is only a symbol of power, of ferocity even. My idea of the eagle is really different than the one of La Fontaine so I hesitate to call this new section of the museum "La Fontaine Section"."
Marcel Broodthaers played with the ambiguity of the Relationship between the original and the reproduction, adding a layer of interpretation linked to the advertising. By featuring photographs of the works that he had previously shown, ha was adertising the "Section of Figures". He delivered a reflection on the power and circulation of images of works of art and the nature of our relationship with them.
"In advertising, the eagle has retained all its charateristics of magical products. [...] The critical form Under which it is presented here consists in a double projection: on the one hand, we see eagles in the history of art a,d on the other hand, nothing but advertising images."
Interview with Marcel Broodthaers by Georges Adé, Section Publicity, Marian Goodman, p.11.
Marcel Broodthaers interviews Harald Szeemann
M.B.: "Harald Szeemann, you are here the "Deus ex machine"; unless the other Documentas, it's only one person, you, that was the head of the project..."
H.S.: "In 1969, in Kassel, they were looking for another structure of organization for this exhibition. They wanted to replace the jury composed by 25 people who only voted for things they already knew; at that time, everyone stand for the democratization of cultural places and back then, they believed that the best guarantee of democratization was indeed one person only."
In "Cahiers" (1971-1972), Marcel Broodthaers developed various themes before presenting them. Each notebook is different - one presented in the exhibition refers to "figures" and the other to the "Financial service" - but they both contain an envelope holding a 100 deutschmark bill propped open by an eagle.
The ingot as a work of art has a sale price calculated at twice the market value of gold, the increase in value representing the value of art. The ingot came with a contract of sale and a written letter from the curator to avoid any counterfeit; one copy of the letter was locked in a safe in a bank in the name of the "Musée d'Art Moderne - Département des Aigles".
The ingot is presented by Danh Vo. It was stamped with an eagle in the workshops at Monnaie de Paris. Like Broodthaers, Vo's practice encompasses collecting and curating in addition to artistic production.
We see the influence of Mallarmé in the movie "La Pluie (Projet pour un texte)" (The Rain. Project for a text) (1969) in which Broodthaers, in the garden of the "Musée d'Art Moderne - Département des Aigles", writes a text when it starts pouring with rain and consequently the water unrelentingly erases each word, each trace of the pen.
"Un film de Charles Baudelaire is not a movie for film-lovers. Why? Because it has been shot in the 19th Century. And film-lovers have never seen films from a time where Muybridge, the Lumières brothers and Edison were not born yet or were just doing their forst steps under industrial mummys and daddys' watch. But I am working on a movie where everyone can find something."
Marcel Broodthaers, text in "Cinéma Modèle", Kunstmuseum Winterthur, 2012
Monnaie de Paris présents from 18 April to 5 July, the "Musée d'Art Moderne - Département des Aigles", the seminal work by Marcel Broodthaers, curated by Chiara Parisi in collaboration with Maria Gilissen Broodthaers.