Angels coming down to earth, sheep turning their heads, Wise Men riding camels to seek out the Christ child – the mechanical Weihnachtsberg, begun by Max Vogel in 1885, adds movement to the Christmas story. But it is much more than just a large-scale animated manger scene; it belongs to a special tradition from the Ore Mountains and is the result of years of passionate tinkering.
Mechanical Weihnachtsberge are a speciality of the Ore Mountains, a region that was heavily involved in ore mining over many centuries. The mechanical Weihnachtsberge, too, have their roots partly in mining, or rather in the mine models made in the 18th Century. Their other roots lie in the reconstruction and re-enacting of the biblical events around the legend of the birth of Jesus Christ in what are known as nativity scenes.
The Ore Mountains are a natural barrier between protestant Saxony and the neighbouring catholic Bohemia, which until 1919 was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Contacts across this ‘green border’ constantly brought new ideas to and fro, especially as the people on both sides of the border were German speakers.
Figurative nativity scenes date from the 18th Century in Bohemia. In 1782 Emperor Joseph II banned the setting up of nativity scenes in all churches in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, probably providing the main impetus for the widespread custom in the 19th Century for people to make their own home-made nativity scenes. The ban was not lifted until 1804.
These nativity scenes became increasingly popular in the Saxon part of the Ore Mountains as well, even though the setting-up of nativity scenes in protestant churches there was frowned on. The miners in the Saxon part of the Ore Mountains were very fond of carving and were only too happy to adopt the Bohemian nativity tradition.
In the second half of the 19th Century, Weihnachtsberge were made – increasingly by craftsmen instead of by miners – in an ‘oriental’ style, and were now given over entirely to the biblical story.
Building the ‘family mountain’ often began right after the wedding. Starting with the depiction of the nativity with the Christ child in the manger, craftsmen would add more scenes to their mountain year by year. Each year the mountain was set up at Christmas to the joy of all the family.
In the last third of the 19th Century houses and accessories were already being mass-produced. This meant that even people inexperienced at crafting could put together their own Weihnachtsberg scenes. A few carvers and craftsmen came together to form Weihnachtsberg clubs. By the First World War countless large club mountains had been made, with ever more sophisticated mechanisms.
Mechanisms were becoming ever more sophisticated. Drives using weights or sand were succeeded by clockwork and even steam machines, which were finally replaced by electric motors. Candles and rapeseed oil lamps were replaced by electric lighting, which made atmospheric lighting possible. Illusionistic painting effects were used to merge the real figures and buildings cleverly into the background landscape.
The First World War almost completely halted the construction of Weihnachtsberge; after a brief revival, the Second World War finally brought to an end the Weihnachtsberg tradition as it had been known. In the atheist GDR Weihnachtsberge could practically only be seen in museums. Others disappeared into attics where they were forgotten. Today there are just a handful of private Weihnachtsberge left, in the hands of connoisseurs who lovingly care for them.
The existing parts and figures were analysed and catalogued between 1987 and 1990. Then a thorough restoration was started and missing figures were carved in a contemporary style. Following this reconstruction, the Weihnachtsberg now has 328 figures in all, of which 139 moved, and the mountain had grown considerably with new scenes added.
Karl-Heinz Fischer completely rebuilt the base and the mechanism. While Max Vogel used clockwork, weights, crank handles and other mechanisms to drive his moving figures, Karl-Heinz Fischer installed an electric motor for the central drive shaft running beneath the whole Weihnachtsberg. He tinkered with the new Weihnachtsberg for nearly ten years. It was bought for the Museum of European Cultures in 1996.
Text: Tina Peschel: Chrismas Mountains from the Saxon Erzgebirge, in: Cultural Contacts. Living in Europa, published by Elisabeth Tietmeyer und Irene Ziehe for the Museum Europäischer Kulturen – Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Koehler & Amelang Verlag 2011.
Concept / Editing / Realisation: Alina Helwig, Lisa Janke
Photos/Video: Museum Euopäischer Kulturen, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin / Ute Franz-Scarciglia, Sven Stienen
Music: Malith Krishnaratne
© Staatliche Museen zu Berlin – Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz