Andrew Jackson and the Elections of 1824 and 1828

Map, Searcy, I.G. & F. Lucas Jr., 1829, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767. Family records indicate North Carolina as his likely birthplace although Jackson insisted he was born in South Carolina.

The Brave Boy of the Waxhaws, Currier & Ives, 1876, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

The youngest of three, Andrew followed his brothers Hugh and Robert into the American Revolution.

The Brave Boy of the Waxhaws, Currier & Ives, 1876, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Andrew served as a messenger for the American forces in the Carolinas and was captured by the British after the Battle of Hanging Rock. He is the only American president to have been held as a POW.

The Brave Boy of the Waxhaws, Currier & Ives, 1876, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

While Jackson was a prisoner of war, a British officer demanded that he clean his boots. When Jackson refused, the soldier slashed at the his face with a saber leaving the young man scarred.

Jackson's law license, Certificate, 1787, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Despite the loss of his family during the Revolutionary war and being mostly self-educated, he earned his law license in 1787.

Jackson's commission as Major General of Tennessee militia, 1902-04-01, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Jackson rose from orphan to Major General in the United States Army.

Battle of New Orleands and the Death of General Pakenham, West, William Edward?, 1816, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Andrew Jackson's leadership at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 brought him to the nation's attention.

Battle of New Orleans site today.

General Andrew Jackson, Earl, Ralph E.W. (attributed to), 1820, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage
Election of 1824
Victory at the Battle of New Orleans catapulted Jackson to national fame and paved the way for his Presidential run. 
General Jackson, Hero of New Orleans Plate, 1826, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Commemorative items relentlessly reminded citizens that Jackson was the hero of the nation. All of these items gave their owners an immediate connection to Andrew Jackson.

John Eaton, Longacre, James Barton, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

John Eaton was central to the 1824 campaign. Under the alias "Wyoming", Eaton wrote public letters to promote Jackson's interests.

Niles Weekly Register, 1824, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

The 1824 election was a four-way race: Jackson, John Q. Adams, Henry Clay and William Crawford. Three established Eastern politicians against one Western soldier and planter. No one won the majority.

Henry Clay, Chappel, Alonzo, 1873, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Henry Clay of Kentucky emerged as one of Jackson's fiercest opponents. Jackson believed Clay and John Quincy Adams had engineered a "corrupt bargain" to win the White House.

Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, Harrison, W, 1828, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage
Election of 1828
Though Jackson was unhappy with the results of the 1824 election, he put his efforts into courting voters for the 1828 race. John Quincy Adams' electoral success did not translate to the White House. Viewed by most Americans as cold, distant, and uninterested in the plight of average citizens, he was unpopular as he ran for a second term. This time, only two candidates were in the race: Adams and Jackson. Campaign rallies and slogans generated popular support for Jackson. The 1828 election spared no punches and observed no boundaries. 
Rachel Donelson Jackson, Strobel, Louisa Catherine, 1830, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Much of Jackson's success depended on the steady influence of his wife, Rachel Donelson Jackson. The couple was married twice because of confusion over the end of her marriage to Louis Robards.

Letter from the Jackson Committee...upon the subject of Gen. Jackson's Marriage, Foster, Robert Coleman, 1827, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

The Jacksons' irregular marriage gave Adams ammunition to attack their suitability as the nation's first couple. The Nashville Committee authored a pamphlet refuting charges of bigamy.

"An Account of the Bloody Deeds of General Jackson", 1828, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Jackson executed six soldiers for desertion in the Creek War. The provocative title of the "Coffin Handbill" preyed on the fears of those who saw Jackson as a wild Westerner, volatile and vengeful.

"National Republican Ticket/For President/Gen. A. Jackson/ For Vice President/ John C. Calhoun", Patterson, J.B., 1828, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

John C. Calhoun, Adams' Vice President, felt Jackson's values matched his own and joined the Jackson ticket. With about 57% voter turnout, the Jackson-Calhoun ticket handily defeated Adams.

Peggy Eaton, Inman, Henry, 1830, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Jackson's first term was complicated by Eaton's marriage to Peggy O'Niell. The ensuing "Petticoat Affair" led to the resignation of Jackson's cabinet and the rise of Martin Van Buren.

Composite image, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage
The Election of 1832
Jackson's first term ended at a precipitous edge. Biographer Robert Remini noted that he "put no particular effort to shape or direct this election." Issues threatening national unity gathered like storm clouds on the horizon. Taking a significant political risk just ahead of the election, he succeeded at vetoing the charter for the Second Bank of the United States.   His defeat of the Bank demonstrated his interest in the common citizen above the special interest.
Ribbon, Political, 1828, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

To Jackson, the affairs of the Bank of the United States signaled corruption and too much foreign and private interests. The 1832 election focused on the bank's fate.

Paper Against Gold, Cobbett, William, 1828, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

William Cobbett's "Paper Against Gold" laid out the wreck and ruin of the Bank of England. His claims that such a system could only lead ruin citizens resonated with Jackson and the Anti-Bank ticket.

Globe Extra, 1832, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Francis P. Blair's Washington Globe was the mouthpiece of the Democratic Party. Special issues were sent across the nation to promote Jackson. It called out detractors receiving Bank incentives.

Downfall of Mother Bank, 1833, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Jackson vetoed the Bank charter, with no hope of an override. With a clear majority election in 1832, he set about dismantling it. Government funds were withdrawn from each branch. The results staggered the national financial system.

"President Jackson's Message Refusing to sign the Bill rechartering the U.S. Bank...", Cable, Joseph, 1832, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Jackson's defense of the veto was a familiar argument to Congress: "Every monopoly and all exclusive privileges are granted at the expense of the public, which ought to receive a fair equivalent."

Cup, Baptismal, Williams, William A., 1835, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage
Andrew Jackson's Legacy
This baptismal cup underscores the value of the Jackson-Van Buren relationship.
Cartoon "A Meeting at the Hermitage", Robinson, H. R., 1842, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

By supporting Jackson, Martin Van Buren merged western political support with New York's power base. He was Jackson's second Vice President and would be elected the 8th president of the United States.

James K. Polk, Fenderich, Charles, 1838, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

James K Polk's nickname "Young Hickory" says much about his relationship with Jackson. Jackson campaigned for Polk during the 1844 election against Henry Clay, shortly before his death.

Ribbon, Commemorative of Jackson's death, 1845, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

Andrew Jackson died June 8, 1845 after a lengthy illness. His accomplishments as "The People's President" resonated in public memory. Until the Civil War, write-in votes were regularly cast for him.

Currency, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1907, From the collection of: Andrew Jackson's Hermitage

After the Civil War, Jackson began to appear regularly on postage stamps and currency. Jackson was first featured on the $5 note in the 1869 series. This is an 1907 "woodchopper" $5 note.

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