Jul 18, 1936

The first images of the spanish civil war

Agencia EFE

On July the 17th 1936, a part of the army begins an uprising against the Republic’s government which, having only been successful on a part of Spain caused the Civil War that ended on April the 1st 1939 with the victory of the rebels and the beginning of the dictatorship of General Franco.

BACKGROUND OF THE UPRISING
The uprising had been prepared during months by the high commands of the army like generals Gonzalo Queipo de Llano, Emilio Mola, José Sanjurjo and civil elements, which speeded it up after the electoral triumph of the leftist coalition of the Frente Popular on February the 16th 1936. During this year social unrest had increased in cities and countryside, which caused several acts of violence and retaliations by one side and the other. The decay of the social and political situation served as justification for the rebels. The self-proclaimed national forces began their campaign with the transport of the troops established in Morocco (then a Spanish colony) and the Canary Islands to the south of the peninsula, at a time that the rebel military declared the state of war in several towns where there were garrisons. In the great cities they were defeated by the military forces loyal to the Republic and the leftist party and anarchists militias beginning the civil war.

Franco poses with officers and Canary garrisons chiefs after some military maneuvers and a meal in Monte de la Esperanza. Among others are Colonel Teódulo González Peral, (with Franco, at left) and Colonel José Cáceres Sánchez (with Franco, at right).

Members of antifascist organizations salute the coffin of the Assault Lieutenant José del Castillo, murdered day 12 by Falange gunmen in the Augusto Figueroa Street.

Many assistants have concentrated this morning in the Almudena cemetery for the burial of the deputy and leader of Renovación Española, José Calvo Sotelo, kidnapped yesterday by members of the Assault Forces and found his dead body shortly after.

“Saving Spain will be avenging your death and following your example is the safest way to save Spain”.

Antonio Goicoechea, leader of Renovación Española, in front of the grave of José Calvo Sotelo.

The main military leaders of the military uprising against the Second Republic in July 1936.

Map depicting the flight of "DH Dragon Rapide" plane used by General Franco to join the Coup D'Etat against the Spanish Second Republic in July 1936.

First manifesto of General Francisco Franco, written when he was general commander of the Canary Islands.

Manuel Fal Conde (3 rd left with dark jacket and coat), with other supportive of carlism, after the insurrection in Pamplona.

Last picture of General Sanjurjo, before riding the airplane piloted by José María Ansaldo, with which he intended reaching Burgos and heading the insurrection. He’s bid farewell, by the plane, by his wife and some friends among them the Marquis of Quintanar, who would be witnesses of the accident where he died, when the plane crashed against a wall when it was taking off in Cascais (Portugal).

Rebel´s military order of General Emilio Mola, issued in Pamplona on July 19, 1936, which proclaims a state of war.

Combo shows two different government decrees published in July 1936, a few days before the start of the Spanish civil war, reflecting the division of the country. Government decree (left ), announces the expulsion of the army of Francisco Franco and other insurgent generals. The decree of the rebel zone (right ), on the other hand, appoints Franco as supreme commander of the army in Morocco.

THE UPRISING 
The first days of the coup were risky. For the rebel military it was of vital importance to take control as fast as possible of the greatest amount of towns thanks to the surprise and the strength of arms. The dominance of western Andalusia was essential for the success of the uprising, because it acted as a base for the transfer of the forces situated in the north of Morocco to the Peninsula. Later other military regions joined. The Madrid uprising failed and the fall of the Mountain Barrack, stronghold of the rebels, became a symbol of freedom of the Republic against the rebels in those days, as also happened in Barcelona.In several cities there was a strong opposition and pitched battles. The combats became protagonists by the end of July and in August 1936 it was an open war. In the rearguard violence against the ideological enemies was acted without any mercy by both sides. If in towns and cities occupied by the rebels the civilian forces that controlled them had few members of the regular army and mostly were volunteers, in the Republican Spain, it was the uncontrolled militias the ones that took care of the repression.

Soldier firing in San Telmo Bridge. General Queipo de Llano occupies the barracks and the radio station; only the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) dug in in Plaza Nueva with some workers in defense of the Republic. The rebels dominate the center of the city and the workers regroup in surrounding neighborhoods: Triana, La Macarena, San Bernardo.

General Queipo de Llano and Commandant Castejón inspect the troops of the first unit of the Legión arrived to the city. From left to right Jose Cuesta Monereo, Queipo de Llano, Antonio Castejón and Manuel Díaz Criado.

Soldiers favorable to the coup aim at passersby in the door to the Inglaterra Hotel, placed in the Plaza Nueva of Seville where you can still see the impacts of artillery after the uprising.

“First.- We declare the state of war in all the territory of this Division.
Second.- The right to strike is strictly forbidden. The leaders of unions, whose organizations go on strike or don’t reintegrate in their jobs will be summarily judged and executed”.

State of War proclaim, July the 18th 1936. General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano.

Political posters from the spanish civil war, CNT (on the left) and Falange (on the right). After 80 years, the Spanish conflict of 1936 still arouses interest to historians, and a huge ammount of books and publications.

Attack to the Cuartel de la Montaña (Barrack of the Mountain).

The republican troops take the Cuartel de la Montaña in Madrid (Barrack of the Mountain).

“The fight against fascism is a fight of extermination. Mercy would be an encouragement for the fascist bandits. Where they pass they sow death, pain and misery. They rape our women. They burn our houses. Mercy? No, a thousand times no!”

Article of “Milicia Popular” newspaper of the Fifth Regiment.

Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guards) befriend soldiers during the take of the Cuartel de la Montaña (Barrack of the Mountain).

Militamen after the take of the Cuartel de la Montaña (Barrack of the Mountain).

Militia members and civilians walk by the city streets after occupying the Barrack of the Mountain, where they have taken certain military gear and a flag.

Gunfight in the Puerta del Sol between soldiers and militia members armed with rifles and 7 mm ‘Hotchkiss' machineguns.

Volunteers come to enlist in the North Station.

Citizens salute militias coming from Valencia.

Frisking of car drivers at the Plaza de Atocha.

General Franco is received by General Orgaz (right), Colonel Martin Moreno (left) and Commander Azaola (in White), when he reaches the Tablada airfield, in Seville. Franco achieved the infrastructure to transport the Moroccan troops to the Peninsula. With the Strait free of the republican navy and the support of the German and Italian aviation, they established, of August the 5th, an airlift that transported the first troops to Algeciras.

Map depicting the transportation of Rebel troops in July 1936 from the African Positions to the Iberian Peninsula.

First barricades after the military uprising. The factory sirens call the workers to the fight. The CNT organizes the Defense Committee in the Theatre Square. A popular tide, along members of the Civil Guard, creates makeshift barricades in the main streets of the city.

Dead civilians, in the Plaza de Cataluña, after the fighting between governmental forces and the rebel military. The Civil Guard with a column of the Logistics Group and groups of workers, retake Plaza de España and the Montesa regiment Barracks under the command of General Goded.

Anarchist militia members ride in trucks by the city streets after the defeat of the military insurrection by the forces loyal to the Republic.

Militia members of Barcelona go full speed in a vehicle through the streets.

Militia members throw documents from a balcony during a search carried out at an insurance company, downtown Barcelona.

Three police agents are seen behind a Schneider 75 gun in front of the Atarazanas barracks, where military rebel tried to launch the coup d'etat.

Militia members fall in while others salute at the band, inside the yard of the 'Carlos Marx' barracks, in Barcelona.

Soldiers on horseback patrol the empty streets in Zaragoza, the day that has been proclaimed the state of war in the city by general Cabanellas, chief of the V Organic Division.

Group of soldiers with rifles and machineguns in the Constitution Square in Zaragoza, where they have read the military proclaim written by General Cabanellas, chief of the V Organic Division, by which the state of war is announced in the city.

Civils from Navarra concentrated in the Castillo Square of Pamplona, heading for the barracks seeking rifles to join the uprising.

“Pamplona. The invaded city, shaken by an irresistible wave. Young and old, armed or not, some wielding an unbelievable and archaic blunderbuss. They came to offer themselves. They arrived by foot, by car, by truck, by wagon; Over the Castillo Square, their red berets where a field of waving poppies.”

Pierre D’Arcangues “Le destin de l’Espagne” Paris, Denoël, 1938.

Falange militiamen freshen themselves having ice-creams in Valladolid, in the first days of the military uprising against the republican authorities.

The Falange leader Onésimo Redondo (c) poses surrounded of volunteers in formation in the court of the cavalry academy in the Zorrilla promenade, in the first days of the uprising.

Young volunteers collecting weapons to go to the Alto del León. In defense of this area took part infantry, transmissions and Guardia Civil (Civil Guard) battalions as well as Falange and Requetés militias. In all cities of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of war had been declared, troops were on the streets and all suspects of active republicanism were arrested.

Forces of the Civil Guard joined the rebels. In all cities of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of war had been proclaimed, troops were on the streets and all suspects of active republicanism were arrested. The Guardia Civil (Civil Guard) rebelled by on itsown in some areas, though some historians estimate that a 50 per cent of the Command Headquarters remained loyal to the Regime.

Volunteers First days of the uprising. Rebellion from the 18th to the 21st of July.

In all cities of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of war had been declared. In the picture Falange troops heading for the frontline, they would join in Valladolid the column of Colonel Serrador to march to Madrid.

Militia members escort two nuns during the battles to suppress the military insurrection in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid)

“The reputation of the Republic in the rest of the world, is in the militiamen hands. They must credit for their civil emotion. For their decision of reaching the annihilation of the enemy when he is in the battle field, but also for their merciful respect when the adversary has ceased to be a fighter to become a prisoner”.

Marcelino Domingo. President of Izquierda Republicana,
Interview in “Milicia Popular” Newspaper of the Fifth Regiment 1936.

Transfer of a wounded during the fights in the first days of the Civil War in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid).

The comandant Ortíz de Zárate counsel of the bridge above the Henares, is made prisioner by the forces loyal to the Republic.

The lifeless body of the Engineers Commandant Rafael Ortíz de Zárate, military chief of the military uprising in Guadalajara, lies a few meters away from the bridge of river Henares, where the rebels established a defensive post with machineguns.

First days of the insurrection. Rebellion from the 18 th to the 21 st of July. In every city of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of War has been declared. In the picture Falange troops heading for the frontline, they would join in Valladolid the column of Colonel Serrador to march to Madrid.

A woman weeps in front of the bodies of three dead men in the Rodrigo de Triana street, after the neighborhood was taken by the forces of Commandant Castejón.

Nationalist volunteers travel in trucks the streets of Zamora, being saluted back by the civilians.

Reading of the state of War declaration in the Puerta del Sol in Vigo.

Squadron of Falange members from Vigo under the command of Captain Valderrama (in the back), in formation in the Uruguay Street.

Map depicting the Coup D'Etat against the Spanish Second Republic in July 1936.

“A new criminal attempt against the Republic. The Government has not wanted to address the country until they knew exactly what had happened and take measures to fight it. A part of the army that represents Spain in Morocco has taken arms against the Republic (….). The government declares that the movement is located in specific cities of the protectorate, and that, no one, absolutely no one, has joined in the peninsula such absurd attempt.”

(Note sent by radio from the Governing Ministry, July the 18th 1936).

A group of peasants head to the frontline in a carriage in Talavera de la Reina (Toledo).

Guerra civil española
Credits: Story

Agencia EFE S.A.U.

Coordinador: Luis de León
Han participado: Julio García Bilbao, José Antonio González, Rober García y Raúl Lorca.
Departamento de Documentación y Archivo Gráfico.

www.efe.com

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