On July the 17th 1936, a part of the army begins an uprising against the Republic’s government which, having only been successful on a part of Spain caused the Civil War that ended on April the 1st 1939 with the victory of the rebels and the beginning of the dictatorship of General Franco.
Many assistants have concentrated this morning in the Almudena cemetery for the burial of the deputy and leader of Renovación Española, José Calvo Sotelo, kidnapped yesterday by members of the Assault Forces and found his dead body shortly after.
“Saving Spain will be avenging your death and following your example is the safest way to save Spain”.
Antonio Goicoechea, leader of Renovación Española, in front of the grave of José Calvo Sotelo.
Last picture of General Sanjurjo, before riding the airplane piloted by José María Ansaldo, with which he intended reaching Burgos and heading the insurrection. He’s bid farewell, by the plane, by his wife and some friends among them the Marquis of Quintanar, who would be witnesses of the accident where he died, when the plane crashed against a wall when it was taking off in Cascais (Portugal).
Combo shows two different government decrees published in July 1936, a few days before the start of the Spanish civil war, reflecting the division of the country. Government decree (left ), announces the expulsion of the army of Francisco Franco and other insurgent generals. The decree of the rebel zone (right ), on the other hand, appoints Franco as supreme commander of the army in Morocco.
Soldier firing in San Telmo Bridge. General Queipo de Llano occupies the barracks and the radio station; only the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) dug in in Plaza Nueva with some workers in defense of the Republic. The rebels dominate the center of the city and the workers regroup in surrounding neighborhoods: Triana, La Macarena, San Bernardo.
Soldiers favorable to the coup aim at passersby in the door to the Inglaterra Hotel, placed in the Plaza Nueva of Seville where you can still see the impacts of artillery after the uprising.
“First.- We declare the state of war in all the territory of this Division.
Second.- The right to strike is strictly forbidden. The leaders of unions, whose organizations go on strike or don’t reintegrate in their jobs will be summarily judged and executed”.
State of War proclaim, July the 18th 1936. General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano.
Attack to the Cuartel de la Montaña (Barrack of the Mountain).
The republican troops take the Cuartel de la Montaña in Madrid (Barrack of the Mountain).
“The fight against fascism is a fight of extermination. Mercy would be an encouragement for the fascist bandits. Where they pass they sow death, pain and misery. They rape our women. They burn our houses. Mercy? No, a thousand times no!”
Article of “Milicia Popular” newspaper of the Fifth Regiment.
Frisking of car drivers at the Plaza de Atocha.
General Franco is received by General Orgaz (right), Colonel Martin Moreno (left) and Commander Azaola (in White), when he reaches the Tablada airfield, in Seville. Franco achieved the infrastructure to transport the Moroccan troops to the Peninsula. With the Strait free of the republican navy and the support of the German and Italian aviation, they established, of August the 5th, an airlift that transported the first troops to Algeciras.
Civils from Navarra concentrated in the Castillo Square of Pamplona, heading for the barracks seeking rifles to join the uprising.
“Pamplona. The invaded city, shaken by an irresistible wave. Young and old, armed or not, some wielding an unbelievable and archaic blunderbuss. They came to offer themselves. They arrived by foot, by car, by truck, by wagon; Over the Castillo Square, their red berets where a field of waving poppies.”
Pierre D’Arcangues “Le destin de l’Espagne” Paris, Denoël, 1938.
Young volunteers collecting weapons to go to the Alto del León. In defense of this area took part infantry, transmissions and Guardia Civil (Civil Guard) battalions as well as Falange and Requetés militias. In all cities of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of war had been declared, troops were on the streets and all suspects of active republicanism were arrested.
Forces of the Civil Guard joined the rebels. In all cities of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of war had been proclaimed, troops were on the streets and all suspects of active republicanism were arrested. The Guardia Civil (Civil Guard) rebelled by on itsown in some areas, though some historians estimate that a 50 per cent of the Command Headquarters remained loyal to the Regime.
Volunteers First days of the uprising. Rebellion from the 18th to the 21st of July.
In all cities of Castilla La Vieja and Aragón the state of war had been declared. In the picture Falange troops heading for the frontline, they would join in Valladolid the column of Colonel Serrador to march to Madrid.
Militia members escort two nuns during the battles to suppress the military insurrection in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid)
“The reputation of the Republic in the rest of the world, is in the militiamen hands. They must credit for their civil emotion. For their decision of reaching the annihilation of the enemy when he is in the battle field, but also for their merciful respect when the adversary has ceased to be a fighter to become a prisoner”.
Marcelino Domingo. President of Izquierda Republicana,
Interview in “Milicia Popular” Newspaper of the Fifth Regiment 1936.
Map depicting the Coup D'Etat against the Spanish Second Republic in July 1936.
“A new criminal attempt against the Republic. The Government has not wanted to address the country until they knew exactly what had happened and take measures to fight it. A part of the army that represents Spain in Morocco has taken arms against the Republic (….). The government declares that the movement is located in specific cities of the protectorate, and that, no one, absolutely no one, has joined in the peninsula such absurd attempt.”
(Note sent by radio from the Governing Ministry, July the 18th 1936).
Agencia EFE S.A.U.
Coordinador: Luis de León
Han participado: Julio García Bilbao, José Antonio González, Rober García y Raúl Lorca.
Departamento de Documentación y Archivo Gráfico.
Para adquirir cualquiera de las imágenes de esta colección puede ponerse en contacto con nosotros en los siguientes correos: