National values of Azerbaijan

National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The first exhibit handed to Ethnographic fund coincides with the period of the museum’s opening, in 1920

Ethnographic Fund, National Museum of History of Azerbaijan, 1920, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan
Ethnographia of Azerbaijan
A large part of the finest, most original and unique exhibits kept in  the National Museum of History of Azerbaijan are protected in the Ethnographic scientific fund section. Total number of exhibits protected in the fund till nowadays is nearly 9000. The oldest of them are candlestick, pestle and brazier belonged to XII century. Such rare exhibits belonged to mainly the Middle Ages and immortalized history, culture and standards of Azerbaijani people are very valuable from stand of their material and cultural value, and are peerless scientific basis for research of our national values. Things which national minorities living in the area of Azerbaijan possess and concern welfare of various peoples exist amongst materials protected in Ethnographic Fund.     
Carpet “Khosrow and Shirin”, Early XX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

A part of the fund collection includes carpets and carpet-making items related mainly to life style and standards of Azerbaijani people and which belonged to carpet schools of Guba, Shirvan, Baku, Ganga, Gazakh, Garabagh and Tabriz. Clothes and embroideries being considerable indicators of cultured civilization of Azerbaijan have specific space among exhibits protected in Ethnographic Fund. High artistic-historical value of this delicate work of art is connected with preparation of some of them by notable personalities. For instance, hand-made art needlework of last Garabagh khan’s daughter, poetess Khurshudbanu Natavan can be considered pearls of not only the museum, but also entirely Azerbaijani art.

Velvet Overgarment (straight up to the waist and bottom part is corrugated), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

A seasonal woman overgarment. It was mostly worn during cool weather. It usually was cut and sewed from expensive fabrics with long bottom and lining. The presented overgarment was made of velvet, and its lining of satin. It was decorated by purl embroidery method.

Velvet Overgarment (straight up to the waist and bottom part is corrugated), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Its waist is cut off and gathered into folds. Tirma was used as a wristband in its decorative design, top of stitches were pressed by galloon, and it has two pockets.
Such luxurious dresses were mainly part of the bridal dress set.

Chepken, XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

One of the most widely spread clothing in the Turkish-ethnic cultural environment. It was a part of both male and female clothing sets. Atmagols (a type of "chocka") were usually added to "chepkens". The presented "chepken" was made of black velvet. It was used as male clothing.

Chepken, XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Its surface was decorated with “ketebe” (colophon) and “afshar flower” patterns embroidered with silver wires and silk threads. The stitches were covered with welt made of galloon and silk fabric. The fact that the "chepken" belonging to the Afshar people was made with great taste shows that it was a part of the clothing set of the people from upper class.

Overgarment (straight up to the waist and bottom part is corrugated), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Made for a bridal dress. It was decorated by chain stitch method. There is a silk lace with gold-threaded end on the waist. There is a gathered part in the backside for keeping the belt in the waist.

Overgarment (straight up to the waist and bottom part is corrugated), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The collar cut, bottom part, and sleeve ends were attached to the chain made of gold thread. Its lining with images of birds and flowers was made by pen-embroidery technique. “1275 (Gregorian calendar 1858); Mashallah, Mubarak bakhshati” was written in Persian language on the bottom part.

Pillow case, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

One of the basic household items used for decoration and comfort of the house interior. Pillow cases used for support were decorated with various embroidery techniques. The presented pillow case was decorated by bangle and filling method.

Wall ornament (“mollabashi”), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

A household item used for decoration of the house interior. It was hung on the center of the wall. It was decorated by purl embroidery method. Such ornaments would determine the social status of families.

It was believed that the “mollabashi” element woven on the edges of frames would protect the house and family from evil forces.

Wall Ornament (“Majlis (Assembly) of Shah Ismayil”), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The wall ornament was used to decorate the interior of houses. It was made by pen-embroidery technique, which has a special place in Azerbaijan`s decorative-applied art. Botanical patterns were applied to the frames of the wall ornament by pressing technique.

Wall Ornament (“Majlis (Assembly) of Shah Ismayil”), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

In the central part, the shah's party, musicians and dancers were portrayed by pen-embroidery technique. “Majlis (Assembly) of Shah Ismayil” was written on it with Arabic letters.

Wall ornament (“tree of life”), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

It was used as a decorative item in the interior of houses. Designed for tall houses.
“Tree of life” drawings in the center and botanical drawings in the edges on the cloth were embroidered by chain stitch and applique method. “The work of Master Ali Karim. Dweller Haji Tarimkhan 1213 (Gregorian calendar 1835)” was written on it.

Carpet “Garmagli Borchali”, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

A carpet is one of the most widely spread types of Azerbaijani decorative-applied art and most widely used products in everyday life. During the cold seasons it was used to regulate the heating system and decorate interior of houses. The background of this carpet called “Garmagli Borchali” is red. Three lakes with blue and green background were portrayed on the middle part.
Sichan dishi (mouth teeth) and mollabashi elements were woven on the edges of the main frame.

Varni (carpet), XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Varni is a thin woven and light carpet. In the past, it was used as a curtain, cover, load cover and wall decoration. It was woven by weaving needle technique. Its beam thread is of wool and weft is of cotton.

Its background is dark blue, white and dark red S-shaped elements were portrayed on it in three rows along its width and five rows vertically. The homeland of varni is Karabakh.

Carpet (Shirvan), Early XIX century –late XX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

During the cold seasons it was used to regulate the heating system and decorate interior of houses. One of the examples of the world-famous Shirvan carpet-weaving school in Azerbaijan. Its beam thread is of wool and weft is of cotton. This carpet of which the background is dark blue has three frames.
In the central part, almond-shaped patterns were woven. It was used as a flooring and wall decoration.

Carpet “Gollu Chichi”, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Carpet was woven in Guba, one of the 7 carpet weaving centers in Azerbaijan, and is known as “Gollu Chichi”. It was used as a flooring and wall decoration.

Carpet “Khosrow and Shirin”, Early XX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Carpet and carpeting products are of the beautiful examples of Azerbaijani folk art. The carpet was woven on the motives of Nizami Ganjavi`s poem “Khosrow and Shirin”. Its beam thread is of wool and weft is of cotton.

It was decorated with a variety of plot and botanical illustrations. The chovgan (game) was also portrayed on it.

Carpet “Tirmasayaghi”, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

This carpet belonging to Ganja carpet-weaving school is known as “Tirmasayaghi”.
It was filled with star and various ornaments. The background of the carpet is red. It was used as a flooring and wall decoration.

Carpet “Sajayaghi”, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The beam thread and weft of this carpet belonging Baku carpet-weaving school is of wool. Its background is dark blue. It has three frames on the edges. In the central part, the pattern known as “Sajayaghi” was woven.

Niche curtain, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

In the interior of houses, wall openings so-called niche had the main place. They were covered by curtains decorated with various embroidery techniques for the inside of niches not to be seen. These curtains called “Niche Curtain” were one of the real signs of the social status of families.

Niche curtain, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The presented curtain was made of dark blue silk fabric, ornaments were embroidered by purl embroidery method and with silk threads.

Cradle, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

A cradle is a small rocking bed for babies. This cradle was made of wood, and there are three figured legs on both sides of the seat.
The sleeping section was surrounded by figured rails.
The top of the cradle was decorated by pearling method.

Pot, XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

It was used to cook and serve soups. The pots designed mainly for dowry were decorated with beautiful ornaments by scratch-carve method, with abundance prayer, kind regards to 12 masumahs, and fragments from classics engraved onto it.
One part of Sadi Shirazi`s ghazal and kind regards to 12 masumahs were engraved onto the pot.

Satil (coppery bucket with sides pressed in), XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

It was a water container. It was also used for storing foods such as milk, yogurt, honey, pekmez syrup, butter, roast meat.
Fragments from “Kalila and Demna” were engraved onto it.

Wash jug and wash bowl, XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

Wash jug and wash bowl - water container. It was used for hand washing, ablution and as decorative items in interior decorations of houses.
Usually, during ceremonies, a young boy or girl (a boy in male ceremonies, a girl in female ceremonies) was walking towards the guests with a wash jug in one hand, wash bowl in the other hand, a towel on the shoulder before and after meals, and serving the guests for them to wash their hands.

Wash jug and wash bowl, XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The wash bowl was covered with netted lid so that the guests washing their hands did not see dirty water. Wash jug and wash bowl were engoldened.

Incensory (for aromatic herbs), XVIII century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

an incensory is used for combining and burning incense (biotic material that releases white and fragrant smoke when burned) and aromatic herbs. Incensory was mainly used as a household item in wealthy and elite families. The surface of the incensory was crafted by cutting method. There are also arabesque ornaments and flower drawings on it.

Plate - tableware, XIX century, From the collection of: National History Museum of Azerbaijan

The tableware was used for cooking and heating some dishes, or even for covering a pot.
Plates made by high level ornamental design were also put on niches and shelves to decorate the interior of houses.

Credits: Story

Director: Naila Mammadali Valixanly , the full member of ANAS, Ph.D on historical sciences, professor

Telephone: (99412) 493 23 87

e-mail: n.velixanli@rambler.ru

Deputy director on the scientific affairs: Nargiz Agasalim Aliyeva, Ph.D on historical sciences

Telephone: (99412) 598 17 40

e-mail: nargiz.aliyeva@box.az

Deputy director on the affairs of scientific fund-Chief Guide: Mahfuza Hadji Zeynalova, Ph.D on historical sciences

Telephone: (99412) 498 67 14

e-mail: mahfuzazeynalova@yahoo.com

Deputy director on general affairs: Alimammad Hadji Maharramov

Telephone: (99412) 598 48 09

Deputy director on the safety of exposition – chief of the exposition: Habiba Mirpasha Aliyeva

Telephone: (99412) 493 97 43

e-mail: ahebibe@gmail.com

Scientific Secretary: Farhad Jabbarov, Ph.D on historical sciences

Telephone: (99412) 598 17 39

e-mail: farhadcabbarov@mail.ru

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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