2016

Miao Intangible Cultural Heritage  —— Batik

Museum of Ethnic Cultures, Minzu University of China

A Miao traditional song tells the story of batik. In it, the Goddess Washuang wanted to make an umbrella to hold up the sky. First, she invited the God of Bees to dance on the cloth, making a pattern in wax. Then she invited the God of Indigo to dye the fabric.  Finally, she stretched it over a frame, and the celestial umbrella was complete. She then passed this technique on to two Miao girls, Ayang and Abu. Life in the mountains is hard, but the Miao fill their days with dancing and music, and as they dance, the indigo gods on their batik clothing dance with them.

Woman's Batik Top (back), Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Work of Batik 6, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

The distinctive style of Miao batik comes from the stylized use of lines and shapes

Work of Batik 8, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Combined with a diverse array of themes and techniques, and the creativity of the women who design them.

Work of Batik 9, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Work of Batik 4, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

With innovation inspired by Miao folklore, they transform the abundance of plants and animals in nature into bold, stylized world of legends and fantasy.

Work of Batik 7, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Wax-drawing pen, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Tools
With simple tools and fantastic imagination, Miao women create the intricate world of blue and white on self-weaved cloth.
Wax-drawing pen, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Wax-drawing pen, which is made of 2 pieces of copper tied to one stick, the space in between the copper pieces holds the melted wax and flows slowly through the tip of ends while drawing.

Tools for Making Batik -- Beewax, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Bee wax waiting to be melted for the purpose of drawing patterns.

Melted bee wax on hot charcoal, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Melted bee wax on hot charcoal.

Tools for Making Batik -- Self-weaved Cloth, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Self-weaved cloth

Tools for Making Batik -- Jawbone of Ox, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Jawbones of ox is used to flatten the cloth before drawing wax.

Smoothing the Cloth, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Flattening the cloth

Harvested Chinese Indigo Plant, Lin Wen, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Made from the leaves of Chinese Indigo (Persicaria tinctoria) picked on the mountain slopes, then soaked in water in a barrel and left to ferment for a month, the dye changes color from pale greenish yellow to the dark blue.

Washing the Chinese Indigo Plant, Lin Wen, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

It is then filtered and blended with a careful measure of lime to produce the rich, dark blue dye that is synonymous with indigo.

Chinese Indigo in Fermentation, Lin Wen, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

This concentrate, carefully diluted diluted with water and the ash of rice straw, produces a color in fabric that will not fade with wear or washing.

Drawing the Wax Pattern (feature 4), Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Drawing the Wax Pattern
Batik is a traditional process of resist-dyeing that uses wax to draw patterns on fabric using special pens.
Drawing the Pattern, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

Before drawing with wax, the artist usually use a needle to press a draft first.

Drawing the Wax Pattern 4, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Drawing while Smiling, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Drawing the Wax Pattern (feature 3), Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Drawing the Wax Pattern 1, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Drawing the Wax Pattern 2, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Drawing the Wax Pattern (feature 1), Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Work of Batik 9, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
 Boil off the Wax
Boiling off the Wax, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/

After the dye is set, the fabric is boiled to remove the wax, revealing the blue and white pattern.

Rinsing the Indigo Dyed Cloth in the River 7, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Rinse in the River
Rinsing the Indigo Dyed Cloth in the River 5, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Rinsing the Indigo Dyed Cloth in the River 1, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Rinsing the Indigo Dyed Cloth in the River 6, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Washing the Cloth, Huang Xiaohai, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Playing the Water, Austin Kramer, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Fish in Taiji Yin-Yang Pattern 4, Museum of Ethnic Cultures, MUC, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Traditional Pattern — Taiji Fish
Fish bears many auspicious meanings in Miao culture usually relate to fertility. Two fish in the form of Taiji diagram create a circle, which represent the sun or the sky, meanwhile it can also be interpreted as the female organ and origin of life. 
Fish in Taiji Yin-Yang Pattern 1, Museum of Ethnic Cultures, MUC, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Fish in Taiji Yin-Yang Pattern 5, Museum of Ethnic Cultures, MUC, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Fish in Taiji Yin-Yang Pattern 3, Museum of Ethnic Cultures, MUC, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Fish in Taiji Yin-Yang Pattern 2, Museum of Ethnic Cultures, MUC, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Fish in Taiji Yin-Yang Pattern 6, Museum of Ethnic Cultures, MUC, Original Source: http://bwg.muc.edu.cn/
Museum of Ethnic Cultures, Minzu University of China
Credits: Story

In Collaboration with Riverbend Academy of Hmongology, Guizhou, China

Culture Consultants: Yang Peide, An Hong
Project Coordinator: Cecilia Xiong
Exhibition Curator: Lin Wen (linwen@muc.edu.cn)
Chief Photographer: Austin Kramer
Other Photographers: Huang Xiaohai, Shi Kaibao, Lin Wen
Content Writer: Lin Wen
Translator: Austin Kramer, Li Yi, Liu Qing, Lin Wen
Proofreader: Austin Kramer
Video Clip Editor: Lin Wen

 Mini Documentary Film Crew

Director: Lu Ying
Assistant Director: Zhang Te
Video Photographer: Zhi Yuehui, Zhang Te, Ji Xiang
Film Editor: Lu Ying, Zhi Yuehui, Suiwu Changjun
Script Writer: Yang Peide
Script Editor: Lin Wen
Color Adjust: Zhong Rujie, Zhi Yuehui
Music: Audio Jungle
Recording: Chenguang Recording Studio

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not represent the views of the institutions whose collections include the featured works or of Google Arts & Culture.
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