8 Folding Screen Expressing Parental Affinity & Brotherly love

National Intangible Heritage Center

Jasujang(Embroidery)
Embroidery’ is known as a figure from the heart not an art created with fingertips. Embroidery is that it puts a certain pattern on a fabric with a needle and colorful threads. Also it is that ancient women with limited environment and exceedingly modest could possess in liberated atmosphere. Women were taught the skill to learn endurance, building up merit as virtue, persistence, pleasure of silence. Also the act itself was not only the traditional style and grace but affordability by the blossoms in the end of their delicate fingertips.
 The history of embroidery considered to be very deep so its development had grown with the weaving technology. The record which was in the period of the Three Kingdoms was found. Although surprisingly embroidery in the Korean dynasty was banned because of the popularity in the public became excessively luxury. So embroidery had decorated the most categories of life from a thimble, a needle and a pillow case as households items to a folding screen and a sitting mat for the family's well as religious reasons.

"Hyojedo" (Paintings of Filial Piety and Brotherhood), 8-Panel Embroidered Folding Screen. 1985~1987. 128x408cm

The "Hyojado" panel incorporates nature and objects related to the Chinese story of a devoted son, Wang Xiang. The koi fish in the story of Wang Xiang is embroidered using the "soksu" technique to show the depth of each scale, and "ieumsu" to express the liveliness of the koi fish.

The "Haetae," a mythical unicorn-lion, sitting on a pile of books, is also embroidered using the "soksu" technique to make it look three dimensional. The body is embroidered to show light and shade, and its eye, nose, and mouth are in different colors to give it a facial expression.

The second and third strokes of the character "je," meaning brother, in "Jejado" depicts two wagtails sharing an insect ("jado" is a style of Chinese calligraphy painting). Wagtails are known for their sense of brotherhood.Even the eye of the scared insect is delicately embroidered.

This "suseok" or viewing stone on a tray is embroidered with layered threads in various shades of grey, to depict the texture and form of the oddly shaped stone realistically. A daffodil is embroidered using the "ssiatsu" and "ieumsu" techniques to express the slenderness and delicacy of the flower.

'The koi's earnest desire to ascend into heaven by holding on to a dragon's tail is well expressed: the scales are embroidered more finely around its midsection, humorously showing the koi with a bulging belly as a result of biting onto the dragon's tail

'The cores of the grapes in the bowl are embroidered using the "uryeonsu" technique to give a variation of light and shade. Each grape has a padded texture, making it look more realistic and three-dimensional.

The first and second strokes of the character "sin" (信), which means trust, represent a grosbeak perched on a peach tree. The grosbeak has a human head like the mythical creature Kalavinka, and is a messenger of Xi Wangmu.

A duck-shaped teakettle with a blue dragon holding a cintamani jewel in its mouth. The handle is depicted using the "pyeongsu," "gareumsu," and "ieumsu" (in cross stripes) techniques. It reflects Master Choi's artistic passion for reinterpreting characters as common objects.

"Hyojedo" (Paintings of Filial Piety and Brotherhood), 8-Panel Embroidered Folding Screen. 1985~1987. 128x408cm

The first stroke of "ye," meaning etiquette, in "Yejado" is a divine turtle carrying scriptures ("jado" is a style of Chinese calligraphy painting). The turtle is known as the first prophet in China and showcases all the embroidery skills invented by Master Choi

A ceramic bowl in the center of the scene contains a watermelon, which was rare in those days.

In the fishbowl at the bottom of the scene, 4 goldfish swim leisurely in the water. The waves are embroidered using the "ieumsu" technique. The goldfish symbolizes the desire for a peaceful and prosperous household.

The first and second strokes of "ui," meaning righteousness, in "Uijado" are ospreys with sharp tails ("jado" is a style of Chinese calligraphy painting). Using various color threads that differ slightly in brightness, the colors in the tails are well defined with natural light and shade.

The tail of a peacock symbolizes success.

On the fan, a pair of cranes sit on a pine tree with an elixir plant growing beneath them. Master Choi's neat and delicate embroidery skills reveal all the details of the objects in the correct place, regardless of their size.

The first stroke of "yeom," meaning integrity, in "Yeomjado" is shaped like a crab ("jado" is a style of Chinese calligraphy painting). It symbolizes Zhoulianxi, a renowned Neo-Confucian scholar of the Song Dynasty, whose name sounds similar to "crab" in Korean.

The brushes in the ink brush holder, which has a sculpted gargoyle head, are embroidered in detail showing the brush hair, cap, and even the patterns on the handles. The fan in the holder is elegantly depicted with an ornament hanging from it.

The feng shui compass shows the 12 characters of the zodiac.

The various bookshelves placed throughout the scene are embroidered using a strict, regular technique.

The bookshelf in the character "chi," meaning shame, in "Chijado" ("jado" is a style of Chinese calligraphy painting) includes a Goryeo celadon teakettle among its books. This is not normally seen in this type of art.

Philosophy and ideology of the master artisan of embroidery, Choi Yuhyeon in her work, <Beliefs> 
Choi Yuhyeon's philosophy and ideology in her embroidery work reflect her artisan spirit and her unceasing effort to preserve tradition.Embroidery crafts are more than mere objects to her. Choi approaches them with affection as if they are her own children. She strives to conserve them for the next generation. She maintains the identity of Korean art by conserving the tradition. Her embroidery is so well crafted that it seems to come alive. Choi applies a variety of creative techniques to give life to every project through the development of unique embroidery skills. For example, Choi creates a unique harmony using both thick and fine threads and different textures of various threads. Also, the technique of manipulating brightness, chroma, and contrast balance is her signature skill that no one can mimic. However, the most prominent aspect of her embroidery is that the values of religion and art come together and it's well reflected in her work. With hopes that people will experience the shared atmosphere, empathy, and unity through her art, Choi embroiders one thread at a time.
Jasujang Choi, You-hyun, born as the youngest of the four boys and three girls in Jeonnam Mokpo. She liked to make anything and had good dexterous since childhood, learned embroidery from her mother when she was 15. At the time, most families did embroidery and it was the easiest thing to learn. After that, she met master Kwon Su-san and it was the turning point for her to become a to live a full-fledged embroidery life from a student who just had a talent on handicraft. She started to learn embroidery from Kwon Su-san, who evacuated from Seoul to Mokpo shortly after the Korean War. After that, she went to Busan following Professor Kwon, Su-san who was appointed as the Head of Department of Home Economics at Dong-A University in Busan. However, the distance between the professor Kwon Su-san and the master began to arise. Because professor Kwon’s family was involved in the leftist movement and encouraged her to accept the western and Japanese artifacts. In the end, as she started teaching, she eventually left her professor.Although she won two prized at the National Art Exhibition and continued her work activities during the breaks and weekends, in order to professionally perform her works, she set up an embroidery institute after retiring from her 10 years of teaching experience. Since there was a word of mouth that she embroidered President Park Chung-hee’s writing, many orders came in, and the master’s work was also included as a gift presented to the President of Germany during the visit to Korea.
Master Choi, You-hyun made lots of small living things such as pillows, photo frames, and cushions until her thirty’s. She attempted to do embroidering using sketches of Korean cultural heritage such as Korean old paintings and ceramics. Since there were good reactions of her works, she began to work with folk painting. From her fourty’s, the master began to embroidery Buddhist painting. Eight Scenes of the Buddha’s life, Ksitigrabha (Jijang Bosal), Mandala, Amitabha, Twelve Earthly Branches (Zodiac) were finished as a work. These masterpieces are usually completed over a period of two to three years, as many as eight years. In particular, since Buddhist embroidery requires sincerity and soul, it is not merely made of embroidery technique, but also a combination of embroiders technique and Buddhist faith. The master Choi, You-hyun became the Artisan of the National Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 80 Jasujang. Currently, she is working at the Busan National University’s Traditional Costume Research Institute (Jungsuwon) and nurture disciples.
Master Choi's studio is called "Jungsuwon," or the house of "moderate" embroidery. The name hasn't changed since it was built in 1987. According to the poet Wonjun Choi, "Embroidery shouldn't be too much or too little." The name therefore means "moderation."Moderation is self-control, like asceticism. Master Choi's embroidery is a record of her own asceticism, delivered to us with each stitch. This is the secret to Master Choi's embroidery.
Credits: Story

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참고문헌
가슴으로 품을 수와 공존하다 (2016) 자수문화연구소 중수원.
오래된 미래 (2012) 한국문화재보호재단


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국립무형유산원 아카이브

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