July 2019

Adolpho Affonso da Silva Gordo

Centro de Memória-Unicamp

The man in his time

Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Character
Adolpho Affonso da Silva Gordo belonged to the group of historical Republicans who founded the Republican Partyof São Paulo (PRP). He was awarded a degree from the Faculty of Law of the Largo São Francisco in São Paulo. As a student, he was already devoted to the Republican cause. He practiced law and carried out a career in politics. As a federal congressmanby the PRP Party, he participated in the 1891 Constitutional Convention, which forwarded the country’s first Republican Constitution. In 1913, elected for the Senate, he occupied the chair of the deceased Campos Salles. He remained as a senator until 1929, when he died in a car crash in Rio de Janeiro.
Diplomatic passport, Unknown, 1916-08-14, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Adolpho Gordo Collection
For over 70 years, Adolpho Gordo’s family preserved letters, discourses, pamphlets, newspapers, historical records, factual fragments and chronicals about his thought and actions as a senator. In 2003, his granddaughter Alice Beatriz da Silva Gordo Lang donated the set of documents to the Memory Center of the University of Campinas (CMU, Unicamp). The exhibit presents a few documents concerned with the man and his work.
Identity card, Unknown, 1912-06-03, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1877, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The man and his time (1858-1929)
Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Henrique Rosén, 1879, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Ferreira Studio, 1879, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Henschel & Cia Succ J. Vollsack, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Piracicaba River Falls, Unknown, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Sault of Piracicaba River. City of Constituição
Sugar mills and sugarcane plantations were established in the banks of Piracicaba River. The city of Constituição was a part of the so-called “Sugarcane Quadrilateral” that dominated the São Paulo society from the end of the 18th Century up to the mid-19th Century.
Adolpho Gordo and his father, Unknown, 1970, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Adolpho Gordo and his father
In this scenery, between sugar mills and sugarcane plantations, on August 12, 1858, was born AdolphoAffonso da Silva Gordo, son of Antonio José da Silva Gordo and Ana Brandina de Barros Siva Gordo.
Central Engineering, Unknown, 1919, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Central Sugar Mill – Piracicaba
Adolpho Gordo’s father was a Portuguese man from poor origins. Sheltered by Captain Caetano José Gomes Carneiro in his sugar mill situated in Itu, he made an apprenticeship as an administrator. He worked in the sugarcane plant – the Morro Azul farm – owned by Brigadier Jordão in Piracicaba. He then ascended socially and received acknowledgement from the Piracicaban society.
Morro Azul Farm, Unknown, 1920, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Santos Docks Company, Unknown, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
City of Santos
The family moved into Santos in 1861, where Antonio José became coffee factor and opened the Silva Gordo & Comp., dedicated to the export commodities and import manufactured goods. He also dedicated himself to money lending. Business prospered thanks to coffee and the inauguration of the São Paulo Railway connecting Santos to Jundiaí. Antonio José died in 1868 and left Adolpho Gordo as an orphan at the age of 10
Rosário Square, Unknown, 1872, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Academic background
Ana Brandina took over the command of the Import & Export business as well as of the loan agreements. Adolpho Gordo started studying at the Santista Institute, managed by Bachelor Augusto Freire da Silva. He continued his studies at the São Luiz School in Itu. In 1875, he was admitted to the Faculty of Law of Largo São Francisco.
Law School, Unknown, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Faculty of Law of Largo São Francisco
This Law School was created in 1827 and became a key institution to form the national elite of governmental leaders. Its role was well played: Bachelors of Laws ascended to the highest positions of the Brazilian Empire in its executive, legislative, and judiciary branches.
Paulo Doumer at the Academy, Unknown, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Academy and republican ideas
During the 1860’s, republican ideas emerged subtly and steadily as to attract a generation of youngsters from the São Paulo State countryside: Campos Salles, Francisco Quirino dos Santos, Bernardino de Campos, and Prudente de Moraes. The group leaded the republican propaganda and the organization of the PRP Party. All of them occupied the highest positions in the republican government. Prudente de Moraes was the first civil president to take office, followed by Campos Salles.
Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Francisco Glicério de Cerqueira Leite

Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Jorge de Miranda

Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Francisco Rangel Pestana

Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Quintino Bocaiúva

Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Manoel Ferraz de Campos Salles

Republican Group, Júlio N. 1882, 1886, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Martinho da Silva Prado Júnior (?)

Second Year of Law School of São Paulo, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1876, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Adolpho Gordo in the Academy
Adolpho Gordo started his juridical and social sciences studies in 1875. He founded the Academic Republican Club in 1876 as well as the academic magazineThe Republic, the official Club journal, where he acted as a publisher.
Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

João Manoel Carlos de Gusmão

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Adolpho Gordo

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Antônio Augusto Velloso

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Caio da Silva Prado (?)

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Adolpho Gordo

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Antônio Augusto Rodrigues de Moraes

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

José Maria Lamanéres and Boaventura Antônio da Costa

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Adolpho Gordo

Portrait of people Group, Carlos Hoenen & Co, 1889, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Antônio Augusto Rodrigues de Moares

November fifteen street, Unknown, 1999-06, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The first years of professional life and the connection with the Vergueiro Family
Adolpho Gordo moved into Capivari, where he acted as an attorney at law. He married Ana Pereira de Campos Vergueiro, granddaughter of Senator Vergueiro. An alliance was consolidated between elite families of São Paulo. The Silva Gordo’s had already maintained connections with the Moraes de Barros and the Ferraz Salles families.
The first Public Council, Unknown, 1999-06, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Law and councilorship in Capivari
Along with his professional activity, Adolpho Gordo participated in the republican propaganda. With physician Cesário Motta, he founded the local Republican Party. For the first time, he was elected for a legislative position as a town councilor by the PRP Party
Public Market, Unknown, 1999-06, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
São Bento Street, Unknown, 1914, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
In São Paulo, as commissioner of the PRP Party
Adolpho Gordo moved into São Paulo, in 1887, due to having been elected as a member of the PRP Party Permanent Committee. He settled a law office with Antonio Mercado in São Bento Street.
Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Josef Meisl, 1919, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Antonio Prado Square, Unknown, 1910, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
November fifteen street, Unknown, 1906, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
São Paulo in the 1880’s
São Paulo became a focal point for politics as the Capital City of the Province. With a population amounting to almost 55 thousand inhabitants (1886), the city experienced an extraordinary process of urbanization.
Tea Viaduct, Unknown, 1919, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Imperial Family, Jungmann, 1887, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
From monarchy to republic
In 1888, the Abolition of Slavery sealed the fate of monarchy. The Proclamation of the Republic found a weakened Empire whose days w ere numbered. “A simple military parade was sufficient to lead it to its last breath…” (Prado Jr., 1963, p. 94).
Portrait of Princess Isabel, Unknown, 1915, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Telegram of support request, Manuel de Alencar Guimarães, 1918-09-17, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Republic and federalism
“(…) The Federation is not harmonized with the monarchy because it is correlated with the Republic”, declared Alberto Salles, the PRP Party ideologist and Campos Salles’ brother. A Republic stood for the defense of political autonomy and economic freedom for the provinces.
Clarification Letter, Prudente José de Moraes Barros, 1889-06-22, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Francisco Glicerio de Cerqueira Leite, Unknown, 1891, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Adolpho Gordo and the Proclamation of the Republic
As PRP Party representatives, Adolpho Gordo and Francisco Glicério witnessed the Proclamation of the Republic.
Portrait of Francisco Glicerio de Cerqueira Leite, (?) Sampaio, 1907, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
They did not participate of the overturned of the Monarchy Regime. Glicério trusted in the military movement. On the eve of the Proclamation, he said: “The Republic is done, nothing will can to prevent his advent”.
Portrait of Prudente José de Moraes Barros, Manoel Antônio Álvares de Azevedo, 1894, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
National Constitutional Convention, 1891
The Magna Carta consolidated the principles of a republican democratic civil order: secular state, presidential system, federation and autonomy of the federate units.
Portrait of Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles, Unknown, 1970, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Francisco Glicerio de Cerqueira Leite, Unknown, 1887-01-16, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Republican deputies of São Paulo in 1882, Unknown, 1882, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Julio de Mesquita, Unknown, 1920, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Dissension, 1901
The recessionary economic policy the “governors’ politics”, inflamed presidentialism, and the enhancement of Campos Salles’ personal powers led the PRP Party to split up. The dissenters, including Adolpho Gordo and Júlio Mesquita, guided by Prudente de Moraes, founded the Dissident Republican Party (PRD).
Policy Analysis Letter, Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles, 1906-03-20, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Referral letter, Antônio Maria Honorato Mercado, 1907-12-09, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Ostracism
Deprived of a mandate from 1903 to 1906, Adolpho Gordo devoted himself to Law and the organization of the PRD Party. In the law office, with his partner Antonio Mercado, among other cases, he took care of his kindred’s businesses.
List of documents belonging to the estate of the Baron de Antonina, Unknown, 1903-09-15, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Silva Gordo couple, Unknown, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
New family ties
Adolpho Gordo married Albertina Vieira de Carvalho in 1904. Their union broadened the connections with the São Paulo State elite. Adolpho Gordo became the uncle of Júlio César de Mesquita Filho and obtained a kinship with Cerqueira César and Campos Salles.
Family Ties, Maria Aparecida Alvim de Camargo Penteado, 2019-06, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Policy Analysis Letter, Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles, 1906-03-20, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Return to the National Congress
Adolpho Gordo was elected and nominated as a Federal Congressman by the PRD Party in the polls of January 1906. That is how a gradual rapprochement with the PRP leaders began.Such harmonization sealed the end of activities of the dissident party and led to his return to PRP.
Republican Party Injury, Adolpho Affonso da Silva Gordo, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Spinning and Weaving "Mariangela" - Helping Staff, Photographer Cilento, 1906, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Foreigners’ Banishment Law. Adolpho Gordo Law, 1907
In retaliation against the strike led by railway workers from the Paulista Railway and the ascending working classes, Adolpho Gordo proposed the banishment of foreigners and leaders of the movement.
Oil Factory "Sol Levante" - Staff Mechanico, Photographer Cilento, 1906, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Policy Analysis Letter, Eloy Chaves, 1917-09-14, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Agricultural map of São Paulo State, Ministry of Agriculture, 1906, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Adolpho Gordo, Senator of the Republic
New elections were held in August 1913 to recompose the representation of São Paulo State in the Senate. Adolpho Gordo, the favorite PRP candidate, obtained an expressive number of votes. The free passes available for the politician in railways attested to how great a distance was roamed about the country in order to visit his electorate.
E. F. Central do Brasil free pass, Unknown, 1921, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Sao Paulo Railway Company free pass, Unknown, 1922, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Mogyana Railroad and Navigation Company Free Pass, Unknown, 1922, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Sorocaba Railroad Free Pass, Unknown, 1922, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Free pass of the Cantareira, Funilense and Campos do Jordão Railroads, Unknown, 1921, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Araraquara Railroad Free Pass, Unknown, 1922, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Expulsion of Foreigners, Espindola & Comp, 1913, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
New strictness against anarchism and foreigners, 1913.
The new legislation was aimed not only at the prevention of urban strikes, but against countryside movements as well. In following years, 1919, 1920 and 1921, the congress preparedlegislation more repressive.
The Foreign Anarchists, Unknown, 1917-09-28, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Project that regulates the subject, Unknown, 1920-10-30, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Phosphoros factory "Sol Levante" - Factory personnel, Photographer Cilento, 1906, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Draft Law, Unknown, 1919, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Project No. 374 B, Unknown, 1920, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Accidents at work: law and regulation, Unknown, 1919, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Labor-related accidents, first national labor law. Adolpho Gordo Law. 1919
The great repercussion caused by the 1917 Strike led Adolpho Gordo to present a bill of law about labor-related accidents, assisted by the State Labor Department. Upon approval, the bill of law resulted in the Adolpho Gordo Law number 3,724, passed on January 15, 1919.
Coffee harvest in Santa Gertrudes, Unknown, 1909, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Mariangela Spinning and Weaving - Tecelans, Photographer Cilento, 1906, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Various News, Unknown, 1922-07-20, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Press Law.  Adolpho Gordo Law. 1923
At the request of PRP, Adolpho Gordo presented a press law project. The criticisms were huge, as shownby a caricature in the journal O Malho. Oppositors went as far as life-threatening. The law was approved and sanctioned by Arthur Bernardes on November 1923.
Charge about the Press Law, Unknown, 1923-11-10, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Telegram thanking Arthur Bernardes to Adolpho Gordo, Arthur Bernardes, 1924-09-27, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Death threat letter, Unknown, 1922-12-20, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
In the Senate, Unknown, 1925-07, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Constitutional Reform. Presidential Powers Strengthened, 1926
The reform was driven at Article 6 and was meant to provide the central government with enhanced powers, which was detrimental to the federate states. Opposition to the reform went as far as life-threatening. The reform was approved with immediate reaction. The Estado de S. Paulo newspaper was contrary to the strengthening of presidential powers as well as to the reduced autonomy of the states.
Political Zoology, Unknown, 1920/1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Death threat letter, Unknown, 1925-11-15, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
International Parliamentary Conference of Trade, Unknown, 1927, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
International Parliamentary Conference on Trade
Adolpho Gordo took part of three international conferences organized by members of parliaments from different countries. In 1927, the conference was held in Rio de Janeiro.
Portrait of people Group, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of people Group, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Rudolf Hilferding (1877-1941)

Brazilian Federation Postcard for Female Progress, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Women’s right to vote, 1927
Adolpho Gordo was the one to defend the constitutionality of women’s suffrage in the National Congress. He thus assisted the Brazilian Federation for Women’s Progress, presided by Bertha Lutz, to take the fight to the parliament.
Brazilian Federation Postcard for Female Progress, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Brazilian Federation Postcard for Female Progress, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Support Letter, Arthur Costa, 1913-04-16, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Divorce
In 1929, AG brought the debate about divorce on to the Senate as he was alarmed about the changes in times and habits, the huge amount of petitions for marital separation, and because he was convinced that only divorce with absolute dissolution of marriage could preserve family.
The dissolution of the Brazilian family, Unknown, 1929-05-21, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The dissolution of the Brazilian family, Unknown, 1929-05-21, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Silva Gordo couple, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Death
Adolpho Gordo died as a victim of a fatal car crash in Rio de Janeiro on June 29, 1929. Adolpho Gordo lived a time of meaningful changes. His life was built on politics, a legacy of laws, projects, debates, ideas that impressed the society of São Paulo State and Brazil during the so-called First Republic.
Senator Adolpho Gordo, picked up by a car, died at the Emergency Room Hospital as a result of the disaster., Unknown, 1929-06-30, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Senator Adolpho Gordo, picked up by a car, died at the Emergency Room Hospital as a result of the disaster., Unknown, 1929-06-30, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Senator Adolpho Gordo's funerals on Sunday, Unknown, 1929-07-01, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Senator Adolpho Gordo's funerals on Sunday, Unknown, 1929-07-01, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Senator Adolpho Gordo's funerals on Sunday, Unknown, 1929-07-01, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Senator Adolpho Gordo's funerals on Sunday, Unknown, 1929-07-01, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
The Power of Slander, Assis Chateaubriand, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Portrait of Adolpho Gordo, Unknown, 1929, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
Credits: Story

Coordination:
André Luiz Paulilo
Edivaldo Góis Junior

Curatorial Project and Texts:
Maria Alice Rosa Ribeiro
Maria Aparecida Alvim de Camargo Penteado

Technical team:
Alessandra Andrade França Barbosa
Ana Cláudia Cermaria Berto
Ema Elisabete Rodrigues Camillo
Jeisel Licursi Meira Lima
João Paulo Berto
Marli Aparecida Marcondes
Sinara Barbanti

Trainees:
Aline Borges Vieira
Caroline Fazio
Douglas da Silva Rufino
Erica Priscila Cardozo de Farias
Gabrielle Caroline dos Santos Garcia
João Guilherme S. Santos
Ligia Cruz Ruiz
Luciana Fernandes Silva
Marileide Rayane de Macedo da Silva
Marina Cruz de Albuquerque
Renato Borges Rosa
Stefanny Lopes Da Silva
Susana Cristina Santos
Tainá Monteiro de Andrade e Silva

Acknowledgments:
Alice Beatriz da Silva Gordo Lang
Arquivo da Câmara Municipal de Capivari
Munir Abboud Pompeu de Camargo

Sponsorship:
ProAC - Cultural Action Program
Secretariat of Culture and Creative Economics
São Paulo State Government

Execution:
University of Campinas – Unicamp
Coordinatorship of Centers and Nucleuses – COCEN
Memory Center-Unicamp

July, 2019

The virtual exhibition is the part of project “Digitalização e Difusão do conjunto Adolpho Gordo dos Arquivos Históricos do CMU”, sponsorship by Cultural Action Program (ProAC) of São Paulo State Secretariat of Culture and Creative Economics.

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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