Going through the old records written by the people from the West crossing the oceans, their perception of Korea of the time is revealed.
The Korea-related references in the 「Description of Empire of China」 are a map titled 「Carte générale de la Tartarie chinoise, a complete map of Chinese Tartary」 at the end of the table of contents of the volume one, and a map and historical and geographical accounts in the volume four. The map on page 423 of the volume four, titled 「Royaume de Corée, the Kingdom of Korea」 depicts the Korean peninsula with the name of provinces, towns and provincial boundaries in detail.
Travel Guide: Hollander Linschoten, His discours of voyages into the East and West Indies
Jan Huyghen van Linschoten | Netherlands, 1638
A “travel guide” published by a Dutch trader and traveler Jan Huyghen van Linschoten (1563–1611). Featuring a number of maps of the Orient and information about the region, it was essential for seafarers exploring the East. His book contains maps of voyages to the East Indies and information about the region, which was largely unknown to Europe, thus contributed to pioneering trade between Europe and Asia.
Van Langren,H.F., Extra & Accurata Delinerarie World Map
Henricus F. van Langren | 1595
The 『Extra & Accurata Delinerarie World Map」 is a colored map printed from the engraving produced by Henricus Floris van Langren. The engraving was produced based on the nautical charts and maps collected by Jan Huygen van Linschoten, a Dutch merchant, trader and historian. When he came back to the Netherlands after he had stayed in India and Asia for about 7 years, he published the 「Itineraio」 in 1596, which contained the map uncolored. The world map places the eastward of the map on the northward unlike the other general maps. Asian countries are differently colored to show the boundaries and the picture of animals, mountain ranges and vessels sailing the ocean are drawn on the ocean and the land. The ocean between Korea and Japan is marked as “Costa de Conray”, the coast of Korea. Since the Europeans at that time didn’t think Korea is a peninsular country connected to China but an island country round-shaped, the map marks Korea as “Ilha de Corea”, Korea Islands.
Account of the Shipwreck of a Dutch Vessel on the Coast of The Isle of Quelpaert and Description of The Kingdom of Korea(French Translation Edition)
Hendrik Hamel | France, 1670
An Account of the Shipwreck of a Dutch Vessel on the Coast of the Isle of Quelpaert, Together With the Description of the Kingdom of Corea, are the first French-translated editions of The Journal of Hendrick Hamel, an account of Hamel’s drifting and life in Joseon.
Hendrik Hamel (1630–1692) was a crew member of the Dutch East India Company, and in 1653, while sailing to Nagasaki, Japan on the ship “De Sperwer,” he and 36 other crewmates survived a shipwreck on Jejudo Island. He lived in captivity until escaping in 1666, and returned to the Netherlands in 1668. After returning to his homeland, Hamel wrote an account of the events of his travels and his life in captivity, which became the first report received in Europe of Korea and its geography, customs, politics, military, education, trade, etc.
A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean(French Translation Edition)
The original title of the book is 『Voyage de Découvertes Dans La Partie Septentrionale de L’Océan Pacifique, fait par le capitaine W. R. Broughton, commandant la corvette de S.M.B. La Providence et sa conserve, pendant les années 1795, 1796, 1797 et 1798』. The first edition was published in London and the French version was published in 1807.
The title of the vol.1 is 「 Contenant ce qui se passa depuis commencement du voyage jusqu’à notre première arrive à Macao en Chine」 and the vol.2 is 「Contenant le détail de notre second voyage au nord, en passant pour le détroit de sangaar, et de notre retour à Madras, en passent le long de la côte de Corée, et devant la mer jaune」.
And there is a map right after the translator’s preface. The title of the map is 「Carte de la côte N. E. de L’Asie et des Isles du Japon, sur laquelle est trcée la route de la corvette la Providence et de sa conserve sous le commandant du capitaine W. Broughton dans les Anées 1796 et 1797」
East Sea (Donghae), Busan port and Jeju island are marked as ‘Côte de Corée’, ‘Port de Chosan’ and ‘I. Quelpaert’ on the nautical map. It is unclear what ‘Thosang’ indicates, which is marked in the middle of South Sea (Namhae). The illustration, number 55 of the volume 3, is the map of Joseon with the title of 「Carte du Royaume de Kau-Li ou Corée」. On the map, the names of rivers, islands and regions are marked and ‘Mer de Corée’, the sea of Joseon, is shown on the right side of Korean peninsula.
The History of Travel by Prévost
Antoine François Prévost | France, 1745~1789
A 19-volume collection of travelogues comprised of every known account of journeys published in Europe since the 15th century, prepared by French author Antoine François Prévost (1697–1763). Prévost himself wrote the epilogue, and Jean-Baptiste Regis organized and commented on the writings. It also introduced Hamel’s Account of the Shipwreck of a Dutch Vessel on the Coast of the Isle of Quelpaert, Together With the Description of the Kingdom of Corea.
Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea and the Great Loo-Choo Island in the Japan Sea
Basil Hall | UK, 1818
Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea and the Great Loochoo Island of 1818, written by British naval officer Basil Hall (1788–1844). On his way back from sailing to Kwangtung in China, he navigated the West Sea of Joseon and wrote an account of the voyage.