Jun 8, 2017

Fashion of Ewha

Ewha Womans University Museum

Ceremonial Dress From Joseon Dynasty Collected By Ewha 

Ceremonial Dress from Joseon Dynasty
The Joseon dynasty, adopting Neo-Confucianism as its ruling principle, supported Yechi, rule by propriety, through the establishment and implementation of national rituals in accordance with the Five Rites. Dress and accessories in national ceremonies were a typical way of obeying the formalities according to rank and procedure. In that respect, ceremonial dress is seen as a comprehensive symbol of embodying the social order and world view of the time. The ceremonial dress of the Joseon dynasty changed according to a relationship with China. In the early Joseon, the dynasty embraced the clothing system of the Ming dynasty including the ceremonial attire, myeonbok, for the king, the robe, daesusam, and neck strip for the queen. However, the foundation of the Qing dynasty made the Joseon clothing system seek its identity with the development of Joseon-centrism emphasizing authenticity of the Confucian culture. Meanwhile, the royal ladies wore jeogui, the queen’s ceremonial attire modified under the influence of the Ming clothing, and dresses tailored in Joseon’s style like wonsam, hwarot, and dangui, on ceremonies like wedding and royal banquets. The patterns and colors of these dresses symbolized the virtue required for the wearers and their rank and matching accessories added authority and splendor to the ceremonies.
Ceremonial Robe for Courtiers
Jobok is the court attire of officials when offering felicitations to the king on days of celebration or documents of advice. It consisted of gilt headgear, red robe, red outer skirt, white inner coat, broad waistband, rank-specific leather belt, lap cover, drape, jade ornaments, silk socks, leather shoes, and hand-held tablet. Status was distinguishable by the number of ridges on the headgear, the material of the belt and hand-held tablet, the drape pattern, and the color of the jade ornaments. Jebok is officials’ ceremonial attire for ancestral rites and similar to Jobok. However, Jebok featured a parcel-gilt ritual cap, the black outer robe and a round ornamental white collar. 

Jobok, Ceremonial Courtier's Robe
1890 - 1910

This ceremonial courtier's robe, or jobok, which was worn by Hwang Cheol (黃鐵, 1864-1930), is an important artifact since its provenance is clearly known.

Geumgwan, Courtier's Ceremonial Hat
1890 - 1910

Geumgwan, meaning “golden crown,” was a type of yanggwan that was named for the gold plating used for the head circumference and rear, which were also decorated with vines, as well as the ornamental hairpin set across the headgear. Yanggwan refers to headgear designed with yang, or vertical lines, in the center of the headgear, with the number of lines representing the wearer’s rank. This particular gilt headgear, called oryanggwan, meaning yanggwan decorated with five vertical lines, was worn by first-rank government officials. It was worn by Hwang Cheol (黃鐵, 1864-1930).

Hol, Hand-held tablet
1890 - 1910

Hol, a hand-held table, was held by officials and used to record royal orders given by the king. Later, it became a ritual to carry hol. The materials used for the tablet differed according to the holder’s rank; ivory was used for first- to fourth-rank officials, and wood was for officials below fifth rank. It was used by Hwang Cheol (黃鐵, 1864-1930).

Paeok, Jade ornaments
1890 - 1910

Paeok, referring to jade ornaments, was hung around the waist with ceremonial attire. The clear clacking sound of jade ornaments was believed to ward off evil spirits, and eradicate evil thoughts. Blue artificial jade, called beoncheongok, was used to make paeok for first- to third-rank officials, and white artificial jade, called beonbaekok, for officials below fourth rank.

When wearing paeok, it was placed in a pouch so as not to be tangled by wind. It was worn by Hwang Cheol (黃鐵, 1864-1930).

Case of Jade Ornaments
1890 - 1910

This case was used to contain paeok, jade ornaments.

Hopaesul, Tassels of Identity Tablet
1864 - 1930

Hopaesul was hung on hopae, which were identification tags used by men during the Joseon dynasty. The materials used for hopae, the ornaments attached to the string, and its tassels were determined by the status of the holder. It was worn by Hwang Cheol (黃鐵, 1864-1930).

Sejodae, Fine Waistband
1864 - 1930

Sejodae, a band made by plaiting threads, is finer and narrower than gwangdahoe. This band was finished by attaching to its end a strawberry-shaped tassel, called ddalgisul, or a bar-shaped tassel, called bongsul, and was worn on outer robes. The color of the band differed according to the wearer’s rank; red was worn by first- to third-rank officials, and blue by fourth- to ninth-rank officials. It was worn by Hwang Cheol (黃鐵, 1864-1930).

Jobok, Ceremonial Robe of a Courtier
Joseon, late 19th century

This official robe was worn by courtiers at celebratory ceremonies, and was the most luxurious among the robes for courtiers. It was worn with a golden crown. The husu, or decorative cloth patch at the back of the robe, is embroidered with four pairs of cranes and clouds, and has two gilt rings attached to it. This type of robe was for the first and second rank of royal courtiers, while this particular article was worn by Heungseon Daewongun, father of King Gojong.

Jebok, Courtier’s Robe for the Royal Ancestral Rites (Replica)
1960 - 1970

Jebok is ceremonial attire worn by officials for ancestral rites and comprises a broad waistband, leather belt, lap cover, jade ornaments, rear drape, silk socks, leather shoes, and hand-held tablet. It is similar to jobok, or courtier attire.

Jebok differed from jobok, however, the outermost robe was black with a round neck band of white ornamental fabric.

Jegwan, Courtier's Ritual Hat
1801 - 1900

Jegwan, or courtier's ritual hat was type of yanggwan that had vertical lines in the center of the hat. It is similar to courtier's ceremonial hat which was gilt, but jegwan merely was decorated with a gilt.

Court Official’s Formal Attire
Dallyeong is a robe with a round collar worn by officials. The rules for its color changed over time. As official attire, the robe was accessorized with a two-tiered angular headgear with two wings and a hand-held tablet. As ordinary attire, it was worn with a two-tiered round headgear with two wings and insignia badges on the chest and back as a symbol of the wearer’s rank. Commoners were allowed to wear dallyeong as wedding attire, so even those who were not in public office could wear it with insignia badges attached on their wedding day.

Hyungbae, Insignia Badge Featuring a Pair of Cranes
1801 - 1900

Hyungbae were attached on the chest and back of the working attire of officials to indicate the wearer’s rank. In the Joseon dynasty, they began to be used in 1454, the second year of King Danjong’s reign. Regarding patterns, winged animals were used for civil officials and land animals for military officers, following the conventions of China’s Ming Dynasty. The design underwent a few revisions and finally became standardized during the reign of King Gojong, when civil officials started to use twin cranes or a single crane and military officers used twin tigers or a single tiger.

Dallyeong, Court Official's Formal Attire
1801 - 1900

Military officers wore the dallyeong, or formal attire, with insignia badges featuring twin tigers. In the Joseon dynasty, insignia badges began to be used in 1454, the second year of King Danjong’s reign. The design underwent a few revisions and finally became standardized during the reign of King Gojong, when civil officials started to use twin cranes or a single crane and military officers used twin tigers or a single tiger.

Scholar’s Robe
Simui, a robe of a Confucian scholar, reflects the philosophy of Confucianism.  The jacket is attached to the skirt at the waistline. The jacket of four panels means four seasons, and the skirt of twelve represents twelve months. The collar, cuffs, and bottom ends are lined with a black hem. 
Ceremonial Robe for Woman
Wonsam is a ceremonial court robe with a round parallel collar and the status of the wearer determined the color and pattern. Queens wore red wonsam, royal concubines purple red, and princesses green. After the foundation of the Korean Empire, empresses wore yellow wonsam. Green wonsam was allowed for non-royal women to wear and used for weddings, along with a hwarot, or bridal robe. This green wonsam has phoenix-patterned insignia badges embroidered with gold thread on the chest and back. The gilt Chinese characters 壽 and 福, meaning longevity and good fortune, are alternately laid out. It has been designated as Important Folk Material No. 63.
Ewha Womans University Museum·The Chang Budeok Memorial Gallery
Credits: Story

Organized by Ewha Womans University Museum·The Chang Budeok Memorial Gallery

Directed by Chang Sook Hwan, Jang Namwon

Curated by Song Su-Jin, Lee Jeong-Sun

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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