200th Anniversary of the Birthday of Emperor Alexander II

Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

In 2018 200 years have passed since the birth of Emperor Alexander II, one of the rulers of the country, who has managed to do so much for the empire during his years of government.

Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova presents an interactive exhibition dedicated to the family of this outstanding politician and reformer.

Portrait of Emperor Alexander II, Unknown artist, Mid-19th century (no earlier than 1856), From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova
Alexander II
Alexander II (17 [29] April 1818, Moscow – 1 [13] March 1881, St. Petersburg) – the Russian emperor from the Romanov dynasty, the eldest son of Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodorovna, entered the national history as a reformer, and as a king-liberator. Awarded a special epithet in pre-revolutionary historiography "The Liberator" (for the abolition of serfdom). He died as a result of a terrorist act organized by the secret revolutionary organization "Narodnaya Volya" ("The People's Will").
Portrait of Emperor Alexander II, Unknown artist, Mid-19th century (no earlier than 1856), From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

The emperor was awarded more than seventy awards of the Russian Empire and other states.
The portrait of Alexander II is presented in uniform with an agile bouquet, blue moire ribbon and the star of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, the star of the Order of St. Vladimir of the I degree with a large cross on the ribbon, the sign of the Order of St. George IV degree, medal "In memory of the war 1853–1854–1855–1856" and the insignia "For XX years of service in officer ranks", the Order of Military Merit (Württemberg), commemorative medal "For the suppression of Hungary and Transylvania in 1848–1849" (Prussia), cross "For 25 years of service in officers' ranks "(Prussia).

Portrait of Emperor Alexander II, Yegor (Georg) Botman, 1872, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Egor (Georgе) Botman (1821(?)–1891) – portrait painter. A considerable number of works performed by him, including portraits of members of the imperial court, are known. They all correspond to the high style of the "grand portrait". But information about his life and work is practically absent. It is known that the artist of German origin, a native of the city of Lübeck.
In 1853, Botman received the title of academician from the Imperial Academy of Arts for the portrait of Emperor Nicholas I.

Portrait of Emperor Alexander II, Yegor (Georg) Botman, 1872, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Awards displayed:

Order of St. Andrew the First-Called
Order of St. Vladimir of the I degree with a large cross on the ribbon
Order of St. George I degree with a cross on the tape
Order of St. George IV degree with a cross on the ribbon
Cross "For Service in the Caucasus"
Medal "February 19, 1861" (was awarded only to Alexander II)
Medal "In memory of the war of 1853–1854–1855–1856"
Medal "For conquest of the Western Caucasus" (reverse)
Badge of distinction "For XX years of service in officer ranks"
Order of "Military Merit" with the crown (Württemberg) (reverse)
Order "Pour le Merite" (Prussia)
Golden oak leaves to the order "Pour le Merite" (Prussia)
Commemorative medal "For the suppression of Hungary and Transylvania in 1848–1849" (Prussia)
Cross "For 25 years of service in officer ranks" (Prussia)

Portrait of Empress Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova
Maria Alexandrovna
Maria Alexandrovna (27 July [8 August] 1824, Darmstadt – 22 May [3 June] 1880, St. Petersburg) – was the princess of the Hessian home, the Russian empress, the spouse of  Emperor Alexander I, and the mother of Emperor Alexander III.
Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Alexander II and Maria Alexandrovna have been married for almost 40 years, and for many years this marriage was happy. The couple had 8 children.

Children:
Alexandra (1842–1849)
Nikolay (1843–1865)
Alexander III (1845–1894)
Vladimir (1847–1909)
Alexey (1850–1908)
Maria (1853–1920)
Sergei (1857–1905)
Paul (1860–1919)

Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Maria Alexandrovna is depicted in a Russian court dress, the standard of which was approved by Nicholas I in 1834. Up until 1917, this outfit remained virtually unchanged. Headdress was also strictly regulated. Married women were instructed to wear "a povoinik or kokoshnik of any color, with a white veil, and for girls, a bandage of any color with a veil".
Many contemporaries called the Russian court dress "French sundress".

Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Kokoshnik on the head of Maria Alexandrovna is close in form to kokoshniks of Arkhangelsk province. Dropping on both sides of the face of pearls is typical for Old Russian grand duke’s headdresses.

Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

The large necklace on the neck consists of diamond cabochons. Pendants are pear-shaped diamonds.

Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Gold bracelet with a portrait of Alexander II is depicted on her right hand.

Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

It is known that Maria Alexandrovna had a gold bracelet with a portrait of her husband in the uniform of the Preobrazhensky regiment and the inscription "1840 – April 4, 1850", which was bequeathed to his son Sergei Alexandrovich with other personal things.

Portrait of Empress Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Ivan Makarov (1822–1897) – painter, graphic artist.
Son of Makarov K. At first he studied with his father, who founded the drawing and icon painting school in Saransk, then in Penza and the Imperial Academy of Arts (at Markov A.). He was a pensioner in Italy. Upon his return he received the title of Academician (1855). He painted icons, participated in the painting of the Moscow Cathedral of Christ the Savior (under the leadership).

Portrait of Empress Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

The Empress Maria Alexandrovna liked pearls, whose threads were woven into her hair and used in the form of beads, pendants, bracelets, etc. But the Empress was wearing pearls only during various palace ceremonies. Outside of this, she wore only massive gold bracelets on her left arm and rings.

Portrait of Empress Maria Alexandrovna, Ivan Makarov (Attrib.), Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Usually, on the left arm of the Empress, along with massive gold bracelets, two gold rings were worn on the ring finger. The chamber-yungfer of Empress Yakovleva A. wrote about them: "On her left arm she wore a very thick wedding ring and another, the same thick, with patterned hammering, a diameter of the same thickness was attached with a large ruby. This is a family ring, given to all members of the royal family by the Tsar".

Empress Maria Alexandrovna in mourning, Peter Smirnov, Fedor Pashennyi, Second half of the 1960s, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

On the night of 11–12 April 1865, the eldest son of Alexander, Prince Nikolai Alexandrovich died. After the death of her eldest son, Maria Alexandrovna did not remove mourning.

Portrait of Nicholas I, Unknown artist, 19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova
Emperor Nicholas I
Father of Alexander II - Emperor Nicholas I
Portrait of Nicholas I, Unknown artist, 19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Franz Kruger (1797–1857) – German artist, portrait painter, worked at the Royal Court of Prussia, at the Russian Imperial Court. He painted many portraits of the royal and noble persons among whom the members of the family of Emperor Nicholas I, Prince Baryatinsky A. and others.

Portrait of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna, Valentin Schertle, Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova
Empress Alexandra Feodorovna
Mother of Alexander II - Empress Alexandra Feodorovna
Portrait of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna, Valentin Schertle, Mid-19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

Robertson Christina (1796–1854) – Scottish artist.
Honorary Member of the Scottish Academy of Arts (first woman).
She worked in Scotland, France, England, Russia.
She painted portraits of family members of Emperor Nicholas I, Baryatinsky family and representatives of other noble families.

Alexandra Fedorovna. Empress of All Russia, Chevalier Printing House, 19th century, From the collection of: Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

This image was often replicated in lithographs. Repeated as the whole composition, and part of the plot. The color scale in chromolithographs was varied.

You can get acquainted with the exposition of the museum and the exhibitions held in detail by always visiting us, visiting the site or following the museum in social networks.

Contacts:
Address: Russia, Republic of Dagestan, Makhachkala, Maxim Gorky st., 8
Opening hours: from 10:00 to 18:00 every day, except Monday

Site:
www.dagartmuseum.ru


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Dagestan Museum of Fine Arts named after P. S. Gamzatova

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