600 BC - 300 BC

Iberian Weaponry in the Necropolis of the Ebro

Museu de les Terres de l'Ebre

The fighting equipment and armament that has been discovered in the necropolis of the Ebro indicates that the Iberian peoples of the peninsular Levant, besides being a hierarchised and militarized society, fought in classic types of formations similar to the other Mediterranean towns.

The Ebro Necropolis
The incineration necropolis of the Ebro illustrate the increasing hierarchy of the Iberian society in their funerary ritual,. The Ilercavones, Iberian tribe in the Ebro, deposited armament in their funeral offerings evidencing the importance of conflicts in the power and the territorial confrontation existing at the time.
The warrier team
From a functional point of view, the basic array of equipment and weapons is composed of attacking weapons and protection elements. This equipment evolved over time by the improvement evidenced by the expansion of ironworking and by changes in combat forms. However, we cannot speak of a completely standard Iberian armament, neither chronologically nor geographically, given the variety of Iberian peoples along the Mediterranean coast.
Evolution of the warrier team
The funeral homes of the Ebro lands indicate: - 5th to 4th Centuries AC: heroic type of equipment - heavy armament (melee clashes between great warriors). - Evolution 4th to 3rd centuries AC: simplification of the defensive armament (of closer combat tactics to that of phalanges). - End of the 3rd century BC: light, standardized weaponry (fighting with heavy infantry tactics).
Offensive armament
The basic equipment of the weapons of attack was formed by javelins and javelins of different size, the soliferreum and the sword. In addition they carried knives that had a diverse function.

Iberian javelin made entirely of iron that could measure more than two meters. These offensive weapons accompanied the body in the incineration ritual.

Short sword of the Tené type.

Sword of antennas. This type of sword was adopted and modified by the Romans and gave rise to the famous gladius hispanensis.

The falcata was praised by the Romans for their cutting capacity and their flexibility, which is the main characteristic of their manufacture.

The handle, which is damask shaped with silver, is shaped like a horse's head.

Lance tips of varying size and shape were inserted into a wooden pole.

Bronze spear tip with a socket to engage the wooden pole. It was found in the town tower.

The knife was part of the team and it has multiple functionalities.

Defensive armament
The basic protective equipment elements were composed of the helmet, the shield, the pectoral or breastplates and greaves to protect the legs.

Central metal part of the caetra or circular coat of wood and leather.

Disc made of bronze which served as body protection and was placed in the central area of the armor. It was part of funeral grave goods.

Museu de les Terres de l'Ebre
Credits: Story

Consorci del Museu de les Terre de l'Ebre
Texts: M.Villalbí

Museu de les Terres de l'Ebre

Credits: All media
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