INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES: SCIENTIFIC WOMEN

Eliza-Lucas-Pinckney, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Eliza Lucas Pinckney (1722-1793) developed the technique for large-scale cultivation and processing of indigo for dye. Indigo would sustain the economy of the Carolinas for the next 30 years.

0330-normal-chlorine-map-thomas-m-drown-ellen-swallow-richards-2, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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The first woman to graduate from MIT *Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (1842-1911) established the field of home economics and developed the first water quality tables in the U.S.

800px-Florence_Bascom2, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Pioneering geologist Florence Bascom (1862-1945) established a nomenclature for identifying acidic volcanoes, was the first woman hired by the U.S. Geological Survey and mentored generations of women scientists.

beatrixpotter_fungi4, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Before becoming a revered author of children’s literature, Beatrix Potter (1866-1943) studied fungi and submitted a paper with her theory of their germination to the Linnean Society.

marie-curie_toned, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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The discoverer of radioactivity, Marie Curie (1867-1934) was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person and only woman to win two Nobel Prizes.

800px-Lise_Meitner_(1878-1968),_lecturing_at_Catholic_University,_Washington,_D.C.,_1946, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Physicist Lise Meitner (1878-1968) co-led the group of nuclear scientists who discovered nuclear fission of uranium. She was the first woman full professor in Germany.

Barbara McClintock, Smithsonian Institution Archives, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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*Barbara McClintock (1902-1992) received an unshared Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her discovery of the ability of genes to change positions on the chromosome (jumping genes).

Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Library of Congress, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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*Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906-1972) was the first American woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics. It was for her work on the structure of atoms – spin-orbit coupling.

Catherwood Diatometer - Ruth Patrick, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Limnologist *Ruth Patrick (1907-2013) invented the diatometer to measure diatoms in the water. The health of the diatoms indicates the level of pollution in the water. The Patrick Principle is named for her.

Chien-Shiung Wu, Library of Congress, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Physicist *Chien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997) worked on the Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear bomb and was the first living scientist to have an asteroid named for her.

Women in Chemistry: Stephanie Kwolek, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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*Stephanie Kwolek (1923-2014) invented Kevlar, a synthetic fiber that is stronger than steel and is used in more than 200 products from bulletproof vests to tires to space vehicles.

800px-Liquid_paper_products_Womens_Museum, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Bette Nesmith Graham (1924-1980) invented Mistake Out (today Liquid Paper) to cover up errors in typed documents.

Vera Rubin on The Astronomers Episode1 - Where is the rest of the universe?, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Astronomer Vera Rubin (1928-2016) discovered dark matter in the universe and received the National Medal of Science.

BetsyAncker-Johnson3287659 - first page only, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Plasma physicist Betsy Ancker-Johnson (1929- ) invented a high-frequency signal generator using semiconductor materials and has multiple patents in this area of investigation.

pat3574791 - Patsy Sherman - first page only, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Chemist Patsy Sherman (1930-2008) was a co-inventor of Scotchgard, a fluorchemical polymer that repels oil and water from fabrics (a textile protector).

2015 NIHF Inductee - Mary-Dell Chilton, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Mary Dell Chilton (1939- ) is one of the founders of modern plant biotechnology. She led the team that discovered a way to transfer DNA to another organism.

Jocelyn Bell Burnell describes how she discovered pulsars - Beautiful Minds_Ep1 Preview_BBC Four, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Jocelyn Bell Burnell (1943- ) discovered the first radio pulsars while a postgraduate student.

Shirley Ann Jackson - 2014 National Medal of Science, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Nuclear physicist *Shirley Ann Jackson (1946- ) received the National Medal of Science “for her insightful work in condensed matter physics and particle physics, for her science-rooted public policy achievements, and for her inspiration to the next generation of professionals in the science, technology, engineering, and math fields.”

Linda Buck, HHMI Investigator, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Linda Buck (1947-) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her pioneering work on understanding the human sense of smell; more specifically for “discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.”

The world needs all kinds of minds | Temple Grandin, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Animal scientist and autism advocate *Temple Grandin (1947- ) developed the “hug box” to comfort those on the autism spectrum – and later expanded its principles to help calm animals.

Credits: Story

Jill S. Tietjen, P.E., co-author of Her Story: A Timeline of the Women Who Changed America, www.herstoryatimeline.com

* Indicates an Inductee into the National Women's Hall of Fame

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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