Exploring the Structure of Nature

-How our world works-

Japanese Nobel Prize Laureates in physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine by The Nobel Prize, which was first awarded in 1901, is the most famous award in the world for scientific achievements. Here, you will learn about the Japanese scientists who received the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology or Medicine. What kind of people are they? What inspired them?National Museum of Nature and Science

自然科学系ノーベル賞受賞者-科学者の個性と創造性

ノーベル賞は、1901年に始まって以来、世界でもっとも有名な科学の賞として、現在まで続いている。ここでは、物理学、化学、生理学・医学の三つの賞を受賞した日本の科学者を取り上げた。科学者たちの創造性や、それと切り離すことのできない一人ひとりの個性は、どんなところにあったのだろう?

Japanese builders of science by When looking back at the history of science, it is clear that many people contributed to the development of science in a variety of ways. Here, you will learn about some of the people who made important contributions to scientific research in Japan, in particular those whose documents and related objects have been collected by the National Museum of Nature and Science.National Museum of Nature and Science

日本の科学を築いた人たち

科学の歴史を振り返ると、実に多くの人びとが、いろいろな形で貢献してきたことに気づく。ここでは、国立科学博物館が関連資料を所蔵している人物を中心として、日本の科学研究の歩みに足跡を遺してきた人たちのうち、一部を紹介する。

Japanese Scientists by Scientific breakthroughs occur on a daily basis throughout the world, including here in Japan. Many of these accomplishments are recognized internationally as significant, and some have been awarded the Nobel Prize. How are such breakthroughs made? What kinds of people achieve such research? Let's find out. Let's meet some of the individuals who endeavored to understand the inner workings of nature.National Museum of Nature and Science

素粒子の世界を探る

- KEKB加速器とBelle測定器-

Measurements by Length, mass, and time are the most basic quantities that are used for measurement. From these quantities, other quantities such as area, volume, velocity, and force are defined. There is nothing more important than precise measurements in studying the laws of nature and supporting advanced technologies. For this reason, it is necessary to set reliable standards for length, mass, and time, which serve as the foundation for other measurements.National Museum of Nature and Science

はかる

長さと質量と時間は、はかることの最も基本となる量である。これをもとに面積や体積、速さ、力といったその他の量を定義していく。自然界の法則を探るにも、高度な技術を支えるにも、正確にはかることが何よりも大切である。そのためには、もとになる長さや質量や時間の基準をしっかりと決めておかなければならない。

Measuring electricity and magnetism by Since ancient times, people have been aware of static electricity and magnets. It was not until the invention of batteries, however, that people were actually able to manipulate electricity and magnetism. Measuring the size and strength of electricity and magnetism is the starting point for clarifying their properties and for using these phenomena. Electricity and magnetism were initially measured by converting them to "force", but in more recent years microscopic properties of matter have been used for measurements.National Museum of Nature and Science

電気と磁気をはかる

静電気と磁石は古くから知られていた。しかし、人間が電気と磁気を操れるようになったのは、電池が発明されてからである。電気と磁気の性質を明らかにし、また、それを利用するには、大きさや強さをはかることが出発点となる。はじめは電気や磁気を“力”に変えてはかったが、近年では物質のミクロな性質も利用するようになった。

Measuring temperature by All phenomena in the natural world are influenced by temperature. Such fixed points as the melting temperature of ice and the boiling temperature of water serve as references for measuring temperature. Liquid thermometers are made by marking scales between these fixed points. A wide variety of thermomenters have been developed for different purposes utilizing the change in material state and properties caused by temperature change.National Museum of Nature and Science

温度をはかる

自然界のあらゆる営みは温度に左右されている。温度をはかる基準となるのは、氷の融ける温度や水の沸騰する温度のような決まった点である。このような点と点の間に目盛りをつけて、液体温度計などをつくる。このように温度計は温度が変わると物質の状態や性質が変化することを利用していて、目的に応じていろいろなものができている。

Thermal radiation and energy by All objects emit heat in the from of waves. From investigation into this phenomenon, humans discovered the existence of the "quantum" at the end of the 19th century. This gave birth to quantum theory, which not only changed the way we look at the origins of nature, but also became a foundation for producing our current advanced technology. On the other hand, the concept of "energy" was introduced from studying the true nature of heat. Energy takes such forms as heat, motion, electricity, and light.National Museum of Nature and Science

熱放射とエネルギー

あらゆる物体は熱を波として放っている。19世紀末、人類はその現象のなかから「量子」というものを発見した。ここから生まれた量子論は自然界の根源についての見方を変えたばかりでなく、現在のハイテク技術を生みだす基礎にもなっていた。一方、熱の正体を探ることから「エネルギー」という考えが生まれた。エネルギーには熱エネルギー、力学的エネルギー、電気エネルギー、光のエネルギーなどさまざまな形のものがある。

Speed of light by The speed of light was first measured from astronomical observations. Through a combination of subsequent devise, it became possible to measure the speed outdoors or in the laboratory. The speed of light in a vacuum is always a fixed value, which is a fundamental constant required for understanding nature. Efforts to improve the precision of measuring the speed of light are ongoing. At present, the speed of light has become the standard for determining the length of one meter.National Museum of Nature and Science

光の速さ

光の速さは、はじめ天体観測によってはかった。その後工夫が重ねられて、屋外や実験室内でもはかることができるようになった。真空中の光の速さはどこでも一定で、その値は自然を理解するための基本定数の一つである。測定の精度をあげる努力が続けられ、今では光の速さは、1mという長さを決める基準となっている。

Gravity by While gravity is much weaker than the forces of electricity and magnetism, it has a major effect in the vast world from the earth to the universe. Gravity works between all objects and cannot be blocked by anything. Further, the effect of gravity extends limitlessly through empty space. It is very difficult to measure gravity, and we have yet to uncover its true nature.National Museum of Nature and Science

重力

重力は電気や磁気の力に比べるとたいへん弱いが、地球から宇宙という大きな世界では力の主役である。重力はあらゆる物体の間に働き、どのようにしてもさえぎることはできない。また、何もない空間をこえて限りなく遠くまで作用する。重力をはかるのはとてもむずかしい。そして、その本質を解き明かすのはこれからである。

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