INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES: WOMEN IN MEDICINE

By National Women's Hall of Fame

220px-Nettie_Stevens, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Biologist and cytogeneticist *Nettie Stevens (1861-1912) discovered that X and Y chromosomes were responsible for sex determination.

maudslye, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Pathologist Maud Slye (1879-1954) believed in the hereditary transmission of cancer before it was scientifically accepted. She is credited with developing genetically uniform mice to aid in research.

pat1547369 - Gladys Dick - first page only, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Microbiologist and physician Gladys Dick (1881-1963) co-discovered the microbe that causes scarlet fever and co-patented the Dick test to determine an individual’s susceptibility to the disease.

Alice_C._Evans,_National_Photo_Company_portrait,_circa_1915, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Microbiologist *Alice Evans (1881-1975) discovered the bacterium responsible for undulant fever; this led to the pasteurization of all milk.

pat2797183 - nystatin - Hazen and Brown - first page only, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Elizabeth Lee Hazen (1885-1975) and Rachel Fuller Brown (1898-1980) developed the first antifungal antibiotic which they named nystatin. All proceeds were invested in the Research Corporation to fund medical research.

Photograph_of_Louise_Pearce_(1885-1959), From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Physician and pathologist Louise Pearce (1885-1959) conducted research, and the human trials in Africa, that led to a cure for African sleeping sickness.

800px-Gerty_Theresa_Radnitz_Cori_(1896-1957)_and_Carl_Ferdinand_Cori, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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The first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in the sciences *Gerty Cori’s (1896-1957) work involved studying the mechanism by which the body processes food (the Cori cycle) leading to treatments for diabetes and other diseases.

Florence_Barbara_Seibert_(1897-1991), From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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*Florence Seibert (1897-1991) developed the tuberculin test that is still the standard today.

Helen Brooke Taussig, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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The founder of pediatric cardiology *Helen Brooke Taussig (1898-1986) discovered the cause of “blue babies”. Today, the Blalock-Taussig shunt fixes the condition.

Hattie Alexander, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Bacteriologist and pediatrician Hattie Alexander (1901-1968) developed the first effective treatment for the once-fatal influenza meningitis.

Dr. Virginia Apgar teaches the Apgar Score [1964], From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Pediatric anesthesiologist *Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) developed a 10-point score to assess the health of newborns. It is administered worldwide at one minute and five minutes after birth.

1997 Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award Recipient Gertrude B. Elion, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Biochemist *Gertrude Elion (1918-1999) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her pioneering processes of drug development. Her immuno-suppressant drug enables organ transplants.

judith-graham-pool-fellowship, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Judith Graham Pool (1919-1975) identified Factor VIII, the clotting factor in human blood plasma and developed a way to manufacture it, allowing hemophiliacs to live life more fully.

220px-Rosalind_Franklin, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Chemist and x-ray crystallographer Rosalind Franklin’s (1920-1958) work led to greater understanding of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal and graphite. She probably discovered the double helix structure of DNA.

220px-Rosalyn_Yalow, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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*Rosalyn Yalow (1921-2011) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her work in developing radioimmunoassay, a technique that uses radioactive isotopes to measure small amounts of biological substances.

Dr. Helen M. Free - Miles Laboratories, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Chemist *Helen Murray Free (1923- ) developed a number of self-testing systems for diabetes including Clinistix, the dip and read test.

Patricia Bath On Being The First Person To Invent & Demonstrate Laserphaco Cataract Surgery | TIME, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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A pioneering African-American ophthalmologist Patricia Bath (1942- ) invented the Laserphaco Probe, a device that improves on lasers to remove cataracts and cataract lenses.

220px-Nci-vol-8247-300_flossie_wong_staal, From the collection of: National Women's Hall of Fame
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Molecular biologist Flossie Wong-Staal (1947- ) was the first person to clone the HIV virus, a major research advancement in the treatment of AIDS.

Credits: Story

Jill S. Tietjen, P.E., co-author of Her Story: A Timeline of the Women Who Changed America. www.herstoryatimeline.com

* Indicates an Inductee into the National Women's Hall of Fame

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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