MONGOLIA 1911 - 1920

20th Century

"The beginning of  the 20th century saw Mongolia struggling for its independence from Manchu rule, which resulted in  independence  in 1911. The consequentual theocratic monarchy headed by the Bogd Khan lasted until 1924. Exhibits in this hall describe the military and political struggle for Mongolia’s  self-determination as well as the ensuing social and economic changes in the country. 

In 1911 there was a revolution in China that resulted in the founding of a new presidential republic in 1912. Despite the Mongolian declaration, the new rulers of China still considered Mongolia to be a province of China. Mongolia sought help 

from Japan, England, France and the USA, but the leaders of these countries felt that Mongolia indeed belonged to China. After this the larger nations became too involved in World War I to devote their attention to this issue.

In 1915 China, Russia and Mongolia finally signed a treaty granting Mongolia autonomy. From then until 1919 Russia and Mongolia had a very productive relationship. Russia provided financial aid for the development of state schools for Mongolians, for the establishment of a Mongolian army, and for newspapers, electricity and telecommunication centres."

Seal, 1911-1920, From the collection of: The National Museum of Mongolia
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Erdeniin Ochir ~ Mongolian Order of State

19th - 20th century

During the Bogd Khan period, the Erdeniin Ochir medal was invented and rules for it created. They were produced in St. Petersburg, the capital of Russia, and were awarded to foreigners. The order was divided into three levels. The top level of the order was named Chinggis Khan’s order and was for kings of state. The second level was named Abtai Khan’s order and was given to lords and princes. The last order was named Bogd Gegeen’s order.


During the time of the Bogd Khan state the Mongolian national flag and seals were changed. Since then they have born the reclaimed ancient Mongolian symbols of the Soyombo and Mongolian traditional script. The Soyombo symbolises Mongolian independence. The Seal’s handle is in the shape of the traditional buddhist symbol ‘Chandmani’.

Erdeniin Ochir ~ Mongolian Order of State, 19th - 20th century, From the collection of: The National Museum of Mongolia
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Erdeniin Ochir ~ Mongolian Order of State

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