Retrato de Leonardo Torres QuevedoTorres Quevedo Museum
Leonardo Torres Quevedo was born on December 28, 1852 in Santa Cruz de Iguña (Cantabria, Spain). In 1870 he began his studies at the School of Civil Engineering in Madrid. When he finished in 1876, he decided he would work in the field of science, technology, and invention because of his passion for mathematics.
Spanish Aerocar at present The aerocar overflying the rapids of the Whirlpool RiverTorres Quevedo Museum
The Niagara Spanish Aero Car Company constructed a cable car over the Niagara River between 1915 and 1916, which was opened on August 8, 1916. The company's aim was to construct an aerial tram that would be popular with tourists.
Spanish Aerocar Over Whirlpool - Niagara Fall inaugurationTorres Quevedo Museum
The "Niagara Spanish Aero Car," as it was known at the time, was a new kind of passenger cable transport based on Torres Quevedo's patent called "Automatic hook and brake for aerial cars," dated January 22, 1915.
Drawing of the Whirlpool and CablewayTorres Quevedo Museum
This drawing published in the press at the time shows the Niagara Whirlpool with the aero car traveling above it. It is suspended between 2 Canadian banks, crossing over into American territory.
Picture of the Spanish Aerocar over Niagara FallTorres Quevedo Museum
The aero car spans a distance of 550 meters and is 76 meters above the Niagara River in Canada. There have been no accidents in its more than 100-year history.
Cable Car of the Monte Ulía (Lower Station)Torres Quevedo Museum
Its Precursor: The Monte Ulía Cableway
Torres Quevedo built the first ever cableway suitable for passenger public transport at Monte Ulía in San Sebastián, Spain. It opened on September 30, 1907, but disappeared in 1912 as the Monte Igueldo amusement park became more popular with visitors.
By the end of 1887 Leonardo Torres Quevedo had filed his first aerial tram patent, entitled "An aerial cable car system with multiple wires."
Spanish Aerocar Over Whirlpool - Niagara FallTorres Quevedo Museum
Thanks to its new system where each cable had a counterweight at the end, the tension remained constant, regardless of the weight of the load, making it completely safe.
Picture of the Aerocar in the Monte UlíaTorres Quevedo Museum
Creating a funicular cableway that covered a large distance was an innovative idea, showing that Torres Quevedo's inventions were consistently original.
Cable Car. Carriage and mechanism for 50% slopes. Monte Ulía Cable CarTorres Quevedo Museum
This design, featuring a route on an incline, was considered for the Monte Ulía aerial tram. However, it was never constructed.
The blueprint has 3 sections: plan, elevation, and profile. It was hand drawn in ink and watercolor.
Here we see part of the aerial tram plan and the mechanism for coping with 50% inclines. The scale is 1:10 and the plan is dated 1908.
The image shows the wires, shafts, and discs of the gondola.
Aerial Cable Car No 5. Cable CarTorres Quevedo Museum
This is the design that was eventually used for the Monte Ulía aerial tram. It is a 1:10 scale drawing of cable car Number 5 with 3 sections: plan, elevation, and left profile. It is dated 1908.
Torres Quevedo carefully considered technical aspects and details in the plans. The drawing of the gondola is meticulous, with each element precisely set out.
The aerial tram was a highly complex technical project with characteristics that were almost inconceivable at the time. This image shows the mechanisms used to start the cableway moving.
Close-up of the wires, shafts, and discs of the gondola.
Spanish Aerocar Spanish AerocarTorres Quevedo Museum
Leonardo's research culminated in the construction of the Niagara Whirlpool Aero Car. His son, Gonzalo Torres y Polanco—who was a civil engineer like his father—managed the construction works.
The Torres Quevedo Museum in the School of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) has a model from around the same time that is a faithful reproduction of the aero car.
Spanish Aerocar - Car detailTorres Quevedo Museum
The car was powered by a 50 horsepower (37 kW) electric motor and traveled at about 7 km/h. The cable load was 9 tons.
Aerocar miniature in motionTorres Quevedo Museum
In the event of a power outage, a diesel generator propelled the car safely back to its dock.
A Spanish Triumph in America
News of the opening of the Niagara Whirlpool Aero Car was widely covered in the media at the time.
Detail of one page in the Spanish passportTorres Quevedo Museum
Even today, the final page of every Spanish passport depicts Torres Quevedo's aero car: evidence that the invention is still remembered and valued today.
Spanish Aerocar at present Commemorative plaque of Leonardo Torres Quevedo's life's work in Niagara ParksTorres Quevedo Museum
In 1991 the Niagara Parks Commission placed a commemorative plaque at the foot of the aero car, describing Torres Quevedo as "an ingenious Spanish engineer."
Enduring through History
The real proof of the relevance, originality, and technical ability of Leonardo Torres Quevedo's inventions is that the Niagara Whirlpool Aero Car is still running today.
Spanish Aerocar at present Start of one tripTorres Quevedo Museum
The gondola is suspended by 6 cables. This means passengers can enjoy views over the whirlpool and its rapids, where the gorge turns sharply and descends into a narrow ravine.
All aboard the Torres Quevedo Aero Car!
Spanish Aerocar StampTorres Quevedo Museum
En el año 1983, Correos emitió una serie de sellos conmemorativos de la construcción del Transbordador sobre el Niágara.
Spanish Aerocar at present Passengers getting on board of the nacelleTorres Quevedo Museum
In 2016 its centenary was celebrated with a commemorative event attended by the inventor's descendants and senior Spanish and Canadian figures.
The Spanish Aerocar nowadaysTorres Quevedo Museum
The Chair of the Niagara Parks Commission said the fact that the aero car is still operating is "a living testament to the brilliance and foresight of the original designer and engineer, Spaniard Leonardo Torres Quevedo."
Torres Quevedo Museum (Madrid)
Museum Director: Manuel Romana García
Editing: Miriam Guerrero Pérez
Texts: Miriam Guerrero Pérez and Consuelo Durán Cermeño
Advisors: Francisco González Redondo, Antonio López Vega, and María Pascual Nicolás
Documentation: Manuel Romana García, Consuelo Durán Cermeño, Miriam Guerrero Pérez
Image Sources: Museum collection, Francisco González Redondo Collection, Manuel Romana Collection, National Newspaper Library
Video Source: YouTube