Kayleigh davis - Buried Treasure

The Model from the tomb of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II was found in an Egyptian tomb created for King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II. The model can be dated back to 2050 BC – 2000 BC and has an approximate size of 25.50 mm (height) by 79.50 mm (width) by 48.00 cm (depth). The artist of this wooden sculpture is unknown, which is the case for most artifacts recovered from Egyptian tombs. This wooden sculpture outlines the process of making bread and shows people completing the different steps in the process to make bread. Bread was a major aspect of Egyptian culture, which is why it was places in the tomb. The sculptures purpose was to provide food for King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II in the afterlife. This may seem like an ordinary sculpture, and something that does not contain a lot of symbolism. When studying these artifacts not all of them have symbolism. Some are more practical. This happens to be more practical, “It was of such importance in everyday life that several hieroglyphic signs are of different types of loaf, and the symbol for 'offering' is a loaf of bread on a mat. (Model)” This bread sculpture was more of a comfort and necessary item to be buried in the tomb, meant to provide meals for the pharaoh for eternity. Works Cited: Model from the tomb of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, 2050 BC – 2000 BC. https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/model-from-the-tomb-of-nebhepetre-mentuhotep-ii/ygG7V06b8fjrfQ?projectId=art-project
The Tomb Relief of the Chief Physician and Royal Scribe Amunhotep and his Wife, Rennut has an unknown artist. Unknown artist are very common for these artifacts because they are found in tombs that contain many of other artifacts with various artists. This particular painting can be traced back to 1280 BC and it was found in Egypt. The sizes of the raised relief are 781 mm (width) by 1105 mm (height) and it is on limestone. The raised relief depicts the image of Amunhotep, the chief physician and royal scribe, and Rennut, his wife. The relief includes both hieroglyphics and symbols, including the lotus flower and bread. As stated earlier in this presentation, the lotus flower is a common symbol and represents birth and renewal. “The hieroglyphic inscription, in sunken relief, reads:Making a boon which the king gives for the Osiris, the royal scribe and chief lector priest Amunhotep true of voice before the Great Ennead, that they may give thee invocation offerings, bread, beer, oxen, fowl of the marshes, wine, milk and every good and pure thing on which a god lives, for thy ka [life force], the Osiris, the royal scribe and chief lector priest, the oversee of wab-priests, Amunhotep, true of voice. (Tomb)” This an example of an artifact that has a lot of symbolism. In the relief Amunhotep and Rennut are also depicted wearing wigs, a common Egyptian style and cultural element. Works Cited: Tomb Relief of the Chief Physician and Royal Scribe Amunhotep and his Wife, Rennut, 1280 BC. https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/tomb-relief-of-the-chief-physician-and-royal-scribe-amunhotep-and-his-wife-rennut/AwFkE5Qn3WuzQQ?projectId=art-project
The artist of this artifact is also unknown. The title of this artifact is, Shabti (Servant Figure) of Henut-wedjebu. It can be dated to Ancient Egypt in 1350 BC. The figure is made of wood and is 278 mm tall. This carving was found in a small tomb in 1896, so it is a relatively recent discovery. Egyptian artifacts buried in tombs were meant to provide both necessities, food, care, entertainment, etc for the person whom they were buried with. This particular carving is an example of something that was meant to provide care in the afterlife. This servant figure was meant to act the same as a servant in their life would have acted, providing assistance to them. Some objects, like the bread sculpture, were meant to provide food. Each artifact had a specific purpose, one that was meant to provide a very comfortable and happy afterlife for the deceased. This particular figure was engraved with text, and this text was colored blue. The figure, “is inscribed with the standard magical text, inlaid in brilliant blue crushed glass-like paste:O shabti, allotted to me, if I be summoned or if I be detailed to do any work which has to be done in the realm of the dead; if indeed obstacles are implanted for you therewith as a man at his duties, you shall detail yourself for me on every occasion of making arable the fields, of flooding the banks or of conveying sand from east to west; "Here am I," you shall say. (Shabti)” This particular Shabti was actually made before Henut-wedjebu died, this was so that proper care and assistance would be guaranteed in the afterlife. Works Cited: Shabti (Servant Figure) of Henut-wedjebu, 1350 BCE. https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/shabti-servant-figure-of-henut-wedjebu/XgH3eGxVKjSZow?projectId=art-project
The Lion Guarding a Grave is from the city of Miletus. The width of the Lion spans 171 centimeters, and it should actually be doubled that, because originally there were two lions. This lion can be dated back to 575 BC – 525 BC. The City of Miletus was quite small, and actually only had one tomb. The lions were actually located outside of the tomb, guarding it, instead of the inside of the tomb. “The lion was the emblem of Miletus (Lion)” and a very important symbol and animal for the city, and the symbol could be found repeated all through-out the city. In addition to the Lions being important symbols, they also had very distinct postures. “The lion lies on its left side and has slipped its left hind leg under its body so that the underside of the paw emerges beside its bent right hind leg. In doing so it follows Egyptian models. However, while Egyptian lions fix the viewer with a regal gaze, their heads raised and the front paws crossed, the Miletian lion has its head turned only slightly to the right and is seen resting calmly on its outstretched paws. The only things that seem alert are its eyes. (Lion)” The lions had very important lifelike characteristics that were very specific to this culture, characteristics and detail that had not yet been studied, making people believe that they were actually studied. Works Cited: Lion guarding a grave, 575 BC – 525 BC. https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/lion-guarding-a-grave/XAEQdM9PouN1QQ?projectId=art-project4
The Blue Lotus Chalice can be dated to 1475 BC – 1350 BC and the artist is unknown. This chalice was found in a tomb that was created during the New Kingdom in the mid-Dynasty. This chalice is blue and covered in lotus flowers. “This flower was associated with life eternally renewed by the rays of the sun (Blue Lotus)” The chalice also symbolizes the belief of birth and renewal. Egyptians believed in the afterlife, and they believed that the objects that the pharaoh was buried with would go with them and provide them with comfort and care as they transitioned into the next life. Every single sculpture, painting, object, ect that a person was buried with provided a purpose. Nothing was put in a tomb if it had no purpose. Even the sarcophagi that they were buried in had important messages on them. This particular piece has a design that represents birth and renewal, which was a very common theme in the artifacts buried with the pharaohs. When you think about a lotus flower, you will think about its behavior. It opens during the day and closes at night underwater, and the cycle continues. This is why the lotus was adopted as a representation of rebirth. The lotus flower is a common symbol that can be found of tomb and ancient Egyptian artifacts. The lotus flower represents the afterlife, including the idea that when a person dies they move into the afterlife, where there earthly possessions help them cross over. The afterlife is in a way, a rebirth or a next life for the pharaohs. Works Cited: Blue Lotus Chalice. 1475 BC – 1350 BC. https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/blue-lotus-chalice/HQGUUFQNIh_eAA?projectId=art-project
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