The Use of the CIA in the Search for Cold War Security
The United States emerged from World War II with a role of international leadership, as well as a concern with national security. As Cold War sentiments grew, so did the fear of communism at home and abroad.
One way that the U.S. sought to avoid another global conflict was to establish the Central Intelligence Agency in 1947 to gather intelligence information. The Director was given almost autonomous power.
The POTUS was the only governmental body who had some oversight on the CIA. FDR only served to strengthen the CIA as an independent body and emphasized its use of covert operations abroad.
One of these covert operations was in Iran in 1953.
CIA operatives help to oust the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and replace him with the hereditary shah. This was after Mossadegh nationalized Iran's oil in an effort to end the British monopoly on it.
Another of these early CIA covert operations happened in Guatemala in 1954.
Like in Iran, the CIA helped to depose popular leader Colonel Jacobo Arbenz after he tried to nationalize holdings of the U.S. United Fruit Company in an effort to improve the economy.
These operations, and others like them, were headed by CIA Director Allen Dulles, brother of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and authorized and encouraged by FDR in an effort to demonstrate military superiority abroad.
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