MONET, Claude 

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(b. 1840, Paris, d. 1926, Giverny) French painter, founder and leader of the Impressionist movement in France; indeed the movement's name, Impressionism, is derived from his Impression, Sunrise (1873; Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris). He adhered to its principles throughout his long career and is considered the most consistently representative painter of the school as well as one of the foremost painters of landscape in the history of art. As a youth in Le Havre, Monet was encouraged by the marine painter Boudin to paint in the open air, a practice he never forsook. After two years (1860-62) with the army in Algeria, he went to Paris, over parental objections, to study painting. In Paris, Monet formed lasting friendships with the artists who would become the major impressionists, including Pissarro, Cézanne, Renoir, Sisley, and Bazille. He and several of his friends painted for a time out-of-doors in the Barbizon district. Renoir and Monet began painting outdoors together in the late 1860s, laying the foundations of Impressionism. Monet soon began to concern himself with his lifelong objective: portraying the variations of light and atmosphere brought on by changes of hour and season. Rather than copy in the Louvre, the traditional practice of young artists, Monet learned from his friends, from the landscape itself, and from the works of his older contemporaries Manet, Corot, and Courbet. Monet's representation of light was based on his knowledge of the laws of optics as well as his own observations of his subjects. He often showed natural colour by breaking it down into its different components as a prism does. Eliminating black and gray from his palette, Monet rejected entirely the academic approach to landscape. In 1874, with Pissarro and Edgar Degas, Monet helped organize the Société Anonyme des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs, etc., the formal name of the Impressionists' group. During the 1870s Monet developed his characteristic technique for rendering atmospheric outdoor light, using broken, rhythmic brushwork. In 1874 Sisley, Morisot, and Monet organized the first impressionist group show, which was ferociously maligned by the critics, who coined the term impressionism after Monet's Impression: Sunrise, 1872 (Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris). The show failed financially. However, by 1883 Monet had prospered, and he retired from Paris to his home in Giverny. In his later works Monet allowed his vision of light to dissolve the real structures of his subjects. To do this he chose simple matter, making several series of studies of the same object at different times of day or year: haystacks, the Gare Saint-Lazare (1876-78), poplars (begun 1890), the Thames, the celebrated group of Rouen Cathedral (1892-94), and the last great lyrical series of water lilies (1899, and 1904-25), painted in his own garden at Giverny. In the last decade of his life Monet, nearly blind, painted a group of large water lily murals (Nymphéas) for the Musée de l'Orangerie in Paris. Monet's work is particularly well represented in the Musée du Louvre, Paris, the Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris, the National Gallery, London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago. It is also included in many famous private collections.(Source: Web Art Gallery)

Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son, Claude Monet, 1875, From the collection of: National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
London Parliament, Claude Monet, 1903, From the collection of: MuMa - Musée d'art moderne André Malraux
Wisteria, Claude Monet, circa 1925, From the collection of: Kunstmuseum
Poplars, Claude Monet, French, 1840 - 1926, 1891, From the collection of: Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Portal of Rouen Cathedral in Morning Light, Claude Monet, 1894, From the collection of: The J. Paul Getty Museum
The Young Ladies of Giverny, Sun Effect, Claude Monet, 1894, From the collection of: The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
The Japanese Footbridge and the Water Lily Pool, Giverny, Claude Monet, French, 1840 - 1926, 1899, From the collection of: Philadelphia Museum of Art
Sunrise (Marine), Claude Monet, 1872 or 1873, From the collection of: The J. Paul Getty Museum
The Rue Montorgueil in Paris. Celebration of June 30, 1878, Claude Monet, 1878, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Wind Effect, Series of The Poplars, Claude Monet, 1891, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
The Cliff of Aval, Etrétat, Claude Monet, 1885, From the collection of: The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
A Corner of the Apartment, Claude Monet, 1875, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Arrival of the Normandy Train, Gare Saint-Lazare, Claude Monet (French, 1840–1926), 1877, From the collection of: The Art Institute of Chicago
Poppy Field, Claude Monet, 1873, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Plum Trees in Blossom, Claude Monet, 1879, From the collection of: Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
Port-Goulphar, Belle-Île, Claude Monet, 1887, From the collection of: Art Gallery of New South Wales
Rue de la Bavole, Honfleur, Claude Monet, about 1864, From the collection of: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Poplars on the Epte, Claude Monet, 1891, From the collection of: Scottish National Gallery
Villas at Bordighera, Claude Monet, 1884, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Water Lilies (Nymphéas), Claude Monet, 1907, From the collection of: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Rocks at Belle-Île, Port-Domois, Claude Monet (French, b.1840, d.1926), 1886, From the collection of: Cincinnati Art Museum
A Seascape, Shipping by Moonlight, Claude Monet, About 1864, From the collection of: Scottish National Gallery
The Magpie, Claude Monet, 1868 - 1869, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Spring by the Seine, Claude Monet, ca. 1875, From the collection of: The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Norway
Boulevard des Capucines, Claude Monet, 1873 - 1874, From the collection of: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Weeping Willow, Claude Monet, 1918–19, From the collection of: Kimbell Art Museum
Heavy Sea at Pourville, Claude Monet, 1897, From the collection of: The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
On the Boat, Claude Monet, 1887, From the collection of: The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
The Saint-Lazare Station, Claude Monet, 1877, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Water Lilies and Japanese Bridge, Claude Monet, 1899, From the collection of: Princeton University Art Museum
Houses of Parliament, Sunlight Effect (Le Parlement, effet de soleil), Claude Monet, 1903, From the collection of: Brooklyn Museum
Flower Beds at Vétheuil, Claude Monet, 1881, From the collection of: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Doge's Palace (Le Palais ducal), Claude Monet, 1908, From the collection of: Brooklyn Museum
Valley of the Creuse (Gray Day), Claude Monet, 1889, From the collection of: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Railroad bridge in Argenteuil, Claude Monet, 1873 - 1874, From the collection of: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Haystacks, Claude Monet, 1885, From the collection of: Ohara Museum of Art
View of the Prins Hendrikkade and the Kromme Waal in Amsterdam, Claude Monet, 1874, From the collection of: Van Gogh Museum
Windmills near Zaandam, Claude Monet, 1871, From the collection of: Van Gogh Museum
In the Woods at Giverny: Blanche Hoschedé at Her Easel with Suzanne Hoschedé Reading, 1887, From the collection of: Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Peony Garden, Claude Monet, 1887, From the collection of: The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
The Luncheon, Claude Monet, 1868, From the collection of: Städel Museum
View of Vétheuil, 1880, From the collection of: Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Spring in Vethuil, Claude Monet, 1880, From the collection of: Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
The Japanese Bridge, Claude Monet, 1919/1924, From the collection of: Van Gogh Museum
The Japanese Footbridge, Giverny, Claude Monet, c. 1922, From the collection of: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
The Windmill on the Onbekende Gracht, Amsterdam, Claude Monet, 1874, From the collection of: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Village Street, Claude Monet, ca. 1869 - 1871, From the collection of: Dixon Gallery and Gardens
The Gare Saint-Lazare: Arrival of a Train, Claude Monet, 1877, From the collection of: Harvard Art Museums
The Seine at Lavacourt, 1880, From the collection of: Dallas Museum of Art
La Seine à Vetheuil, Claude Monet, 1878, From the collection of: MuMa - Musée d'art moderne André Malraux
The Cliff, Étretat, Sunset, Claude Monet, 1882 - 1883, From the collection of: North Carolina Museum of Art
Port of Dieppe, Evening, Claude Monet, 1882, From the collection of: Dixon Gallery and Gardens
Waterloo Bridge, Sunlight Effect, Claude Monet, ca. 1900 (dated 1903), From the collection of: Milwaukee Art Museum
La berge de La Seine (Orillas del Sena), Claude MONET, 1880 - 1880, From the collection of: Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de Argentina
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