COLD WAR

A timeline of the Cold War from 1945-1991.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin (also known as the Big Three) met at the Yalta Conference on February 4, 145 to discuss the end of WWII. It is at this conference that the Cold War began.
Victory in Europe: In WWII Europe won against Germany who surrendered to the Red Army in Berlin on May 8, 1945.
At the Potsdam Conference in July of 1945, Germany was officially divided into four occupation zones.
The United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945; two days later, Russia declares war on Japan.
On August 9, 1945, the United States drops another atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Five days later on August 14, 1945, Japan surrenders and WWII officially ends.
On August 15, 1945, the Emperor of Japan holds a broadcast to announce Japan's surrender, know as V-J Day.
On March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill delivers a speech titled "Sinew of Peace" and says "an 'iron curtain' has descended on Europe".
On July 1, 1946, the United states conducts Operation Crossroads. This was the first public display of the atomic power held by the United States.
On March 12, 1945 the Truman Doctrine is released and Truman declares an active role in the Greek Civil War. In June of 1945, the Marshall Plan is announced and provides a way to help countries recovery economically from WWII.
On February 25 1948, Communists takeover in Czechoslovakia. On March 2, 1948, Truman's Loyalty program was put into action to catch Cold War spies. On March 17, 1948, the Brussels Pact was organized in order to protect Europe from Communism. On June 24, 1948 the 11 month Berlin Blockade began when the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the parts of Berlin under Western control. The Allies flew food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air in what is known as the Berlin Airlift.
On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong gains control of China. He establishes the People's Republic of China.
In February of 1950, Joe McCarthy begins Communist loyalty tests.
On June 24, 1950, the Korean war begins. Stalin is supportive of North Korea who invades South Korea.
On April 11, 1951, Truman fires Douglas MacArthur. In 1952, atomic bombs are developed by Britain. From March 17, 1953 to June 4, 1953, the United States participates in the Nuclear Arms Race and tests a series of 11 explosions at the Nevada Test Site.
In July of 1953, the Korean War ends however Korea is still divided. In March of 1954, Russia forms the KGB, a military spy unit. In July of 1954, Vietnam is split at the 17th parallel. In May of 1955, the Warsaw Pact is formed to create a military alliance of communist nations in Eastern Europe.
On October 29, 1956 the Suez Crisis began. Isreal attacked Egyptian forces in the Sinai. Egypt took control of Suez.
On August 26, 1957, the USSR launches the Vostok rocket (first intercontinental ballistic missile). On October 4, 1957, the USSR launches Sputnik into orbit. On November 3, 1957, the USSR launches Sputnik II. Sputnik II carried the first animal in space, the dog Laika, who died. On January 31, 1958, the United States launches their first satellite, Explorer I. In July of 1958, NASA begins the Mercury Project (first human spaceflight program) by launching the Atlas rocket.
In November of 1958, Khrushchev (Soviet Premier) withdraws troops from Berlin. In September of 1959, Khrushchev visits the United States in what as known as the Kitchen Debate (a set of small unplanned exchanges between Khrushchev and Nixon).
In May of 1960, the USSR releases information relating to a U.S. spy plane that was shot down over Soviet territory. In November of 1960, John F. Kennedy is elected as president of the United States. In April of 1961, the Bay of Pigs occurs. The United States supported Cuban exiles as they unsuccessfully invaded Cuba.
On August 13, 1961, the Berlin border is closed. Four days later, on August 17, 1961, the construction of the Berlin Wall begins.
The Cuban Missile Crisis began in October of 1962. The Soviets and the United States clashed over the topic of Soviet missiles in Cuba.
On August 5, 1963, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom. It banned all tests of nuclear weapons, with the exclusion of underground testing.
On November 22, 1963, United State's President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
In August of 1964, the incident in the Gulf of Tonkin occurred. Torpedoes from North Vietnam supposedly attacked the USS Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin. In July of 1965, the United States announces that they will dispatch 200,000 troops to Vietnam.
On January 23, 1968, The U.S.S. Pueblo is captured by North Korea in what is known as the Pueblo Incident.
In January of 1968, Richard Nixon is elected as the President of the United States.
On July 20, 1969, the American rocket Apollo 11 lands on the moon, man walks on the moon for the first time.
In 1971, Pentagon Papers are published in the New York Times and Washington Post. They were about a classified study of the Vietnam War done by the Department of Defense.
In February of 1972, American President Richard Nixon visits China. in January of 1973, a cease fire occurs in Vietnam between North Vietnam and the United States. In September of 1973, an American supported coup overthrows Chilean government. In October of 1973, Egypt and Syria attack Israel. Egypt and Syria were supported by the Soviets while Israel was supported by the Untied States. The attack ended in an Israeli victory at great harm to the United States.
In August of 1974, President Nixon resigns. On April 17, 1975, North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam leaving South Vietnam to fall to Communist forces. In January of 1979, the United States and China establish diplomatic relations.
From 1979-1981, radicals in Iran seized 66 American at the United States embassy in Tehran. They kept 52 of them hostage for more than a year. This was known as the Iranian Hostage Crisis.
In August of 1980, in a Polish shipyard, workers go on strike and the Solidarity Union is formed. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the leader of the USSR.
In 1986, American president Ronald Reagan and Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev meet and agree to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe. In 1987, they agree to remover all medium and short-range nuclear missiles as well.
In January of 1989, Soviet troops are withdrawn from Afghanistan. In June of 1989, Poland becomes independent. In September of 1989 Hungary becomes Independent. In November of 1989, the Berlin Wall is demolished. In December of 1989, Communists governments in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania collapse. In March of 1989, Lithuania becomes independent.
On May 29, 1990, Boris Yeltsin is elected as President of Russia. On October 3, 1990, Germany is united. In August of 1991, the Cold War ends and the Soviet Union ceases to exist.
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