tensions between the natives & whites 

1850's - 1870's

After the Homestead Act, large numbers of Europeans moved into Native American Territory. In the 1860's and 1870's the United States Army was engaged in the war with the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes.
The Pawnee became scouts, they were successful in helping protect the railroad when being built across Nebraska. They accompanied multiple U.S army expeditions against the Sioux, Cheyenne, and the Arapaho. By the late 1870's most Pawnee scouts were separated. Most Pawnee members from Nebraska to Indian Territory south of Nebraska were removed by the U.S government.
Early emigrants caused much trouble with the Sioux. Their experience sets the stage for the history of homesteading. Most trouble with whites began with the California Gold Rush. In 1850 around 50,000 gold seekers traveled the Overland Trail through the heart of Lakota country. Lakota didn't take the newcomers crossing their land, competing for resources, very well. Government tried to break it up peacefully.
1851- Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. Government officials met with the Cheyenne, Crow, Blackfeet, Arapaho, Assiniboine, Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota tribal at Fort Laramie. Took place just west of present Nebraska and Wyoming. Around 10,000 Native Americans camped and talked with U.S representatives. The tribes and government discussed and created that had a treaty with the following main points: peace and friendship among rival tribes, each tribe earns a promised $50,000 each year, the U.S government gained rights to build roads and forts and gave immigrants the right to travel on the Overland Trail in peace, the treaty drew lines where the tribes were allowed to hunt and fish, and allowed the government to keep the money owed to the tribes if the tribes violated the rules.
The peace did not last, in 1854, eight years before the Homestead Act, some tribe members from the Lakota near Fort Laramie butchered and emigrant's cow because they thought that it was abandoned. Lt. John Grattan and 29 soldiers were sent to investigate the incident, which thye then proceeded to open fire on the Indian camp. The angry Indians killed the rest of the soldiers. The next year General Harney was ordered for peace to be restored. He found a Lakota camp at Blue Water Creek in Garden County and attacked it, the camp had nothing to do with the Grattan slaughter. Harney’s troops killed 136 men, women, and children. Although peace was restored, pressure continued to build, and war broke out again in 1863 with attacks on Overland Trail travelers. In 1867 the Lakota pushed eastward and attacked a Union Pacific railroad train in Dawson County, Nebraska. Attempts at peaceful settlements resulted in payments of food, guns, and other goods to the Lakota.
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