The United Nations
U.S. president FDR created the U.N. charter in June, 1945. The multi-national organization was made official that October with 51 participating countries, including the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
The U.N.'s objectives are peace-keeping, human rights, and promoting sustainability. In the past, the U.N. has intervened to provide emergency disaster relief, or to restore peace in conflict areas.
Eleanor Roosevelt created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on which the U.N. has built its humanitarian policies. She is often seen as a champion of this objective.
The U.N. is composed of five separate sections; The General Assembly, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council.
Each organ of the U.N. oversees specific processes. For example, the General Assembly handles the admission of new members, while the Security Council focuses on peace-keeping and conflict resolution.
During the Cold War, tensions between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. lead to multiple U.N. interventions. The organization aided to settle conflicts such as the Korean war, and the creation of Israel.
Following the Cold War, the U.N. adopted more peace-keeping responsibilities, intervening in Middle-Eastern, Somalian, and Eastern European conflicts. Not all of these exploits were successful.
Critics denounce the U.N. for giving memberships to non-democratic countries. They have also accused the U.N. of elitism, abuse of power, human rights violations, and general ineffectiveness.
The U.N.'s handling of the Cold War, and Arab-Israeli conflict has also been heavily criticized, especially by U.S. politicians, who believe the organization's anti-Zionist policies to be antisemitic.
Despite criticism, the U.N. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and many individual members and organizations associated with the U.N. have won similar recognitions.
Today, the U.N. has activity centers on almost every continent, and in cities such as Nairobi, Vienna, Bangkok, and Beruit. The closest one, and the largest, is located in New York City.
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