Mariluz Carola Cordova Flores: Egypt architecture

The ancient Egyptians architecture were made out of stone. Most of the construction built with this type of material were the pyramids, tombs, temples and palaces. These buildings had a very complex design and it require engineering and architectural skills as well a very organizational design and a lot of people to create this structures. Egyptian buildings were decorated with paintings, carved stone images, hieroglyphs and three-dimensional statues to represent their gods or pharaohs. The art of the Egyptians symbolize the history of the pharaohs, the gods, the common people and the natural world of plants, birds and animals. Fine sandstone, limestone, and granite were used for obelisks, sculpture, and decorative uses. The Egyptians developed post-and-lintel construction—the type exclusively used in their monumental buildings. The walls were immensely thick and strong, one of the reason it outlast long. Columns were confined to the halls and inner courts. Roofs, invariably flat, suited to the lack of rain, were of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns. Egyptian sculptors possessed the highest capacity for integrating ornamentation and the essential forms of their buildings. Temples and tombs, constructed in durable materials, have survived through all this years. We can still go and see those buildings and appreciate what people on the past create and design, or we can understand the meaning and purpose of the creation of this magnificent structures. Groups of pyramids from the ancient Egypt still remain for example the pyramids located in Giza, which include the Great Pyramid of Khufu (or Cheops), are among the best known. Other example are the temples. The Great Temple of Amon at Karnak is a product of many successive additions; the central columns of its hypostyle hall are the largest known. Palaces were the residences of the pharaohs and it consisted of two main sections, one to accommodate the pharaoh needs and the other to meet the requirements of administration. They were essentially rectangular structures consisting of high walls topped with towers. The tops of the towers were often decorated with a rich cornice or panels.  -The large temple buildings were made of stone so that they would last forever. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then brightly painted.                                                                            -Some temples showed the pharaoh fighting in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses.                                                                -One such palace-temple is found at Medinet Habu, across from the former site of Thebes, on the other side of the Nile. It was built by Rameses III during the twentieth dynasty, around 1150 B.C.                         -The Valley of the Kings is famous for its royal tombs. For over a thousand years, the kings, queens and nobles of the New Kingdom (1500-1070 B.C.) were buried in this valley, which is the world's most magnificent burial ground.                                          -The most famous pyramids are found at Giza. They were built by three pharaohs during the second half of the third millennium B.C.

-Karnak Temple dates from around 2055 BC to around 100 AD. -The temple of Karnak was known as Ipet-isu—or “most select of places”—by the ancient Egyptians. -It is a city of temples built over 2,000 years and dedicated to the Theban triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu. -The largest religious building ever constructed. -The great temple at the heart of Karnak is so big that St Peter’s, Milan, and Notre Dame Cathedrals would fit within its walls.
-The modern town of Luxor is the site of the famous city of Thebes, the City of a Hundred Gates. -Some of the stone temples have survived. The most beautiful of these is the temple of Luxor. -The temple was built by Amenhotep III (1390-52 BC) but completed by Tutankhamun (1336-27 BC) and Horemheb (1323-1295 BC) and then added to by Rameses II (1279-13 BC). -Toward the rear of the temple there is a granite shrine dedicated to Alexander the Great (332-305 BC). -The temple has been in almost continuous use as a place of worship right up to the present day.
-Madinat Habu was known as Djanet and according to ancient belief was the place were Amun first appeared. -Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III built a temple dedicated to Amun here and Later Rameses III constructed his larger memorial temple on the site. -The temple complex was surrounded by a massive fortified enclosure wall. -This structure is a copy of a Syrian migdol fortresses. -In later times, because of its strong fortifications, it was the place of refuge during the civil war between the High Priest of Amun at Karnak and the viceroy of Kush.
-The tombs were cut into the limestone rock in a remote wadi (a dried-up river valley) on the west side of the Nile, opposite the present day city of Karnak. -The walls were painted and sculpted with magnificent murals depicting scenes of daily life and the land of the gods. -The chambers were filled with treasures. -The valley contains hundreds of tombs, many of which have yet to be excavated and others that have not yet been found. -The most famous tomb belongs to the boy king Tutankhamun.
-This site is one of the seven classic wonders of the ancient world, the only one that has survived the passage of time. -The Great Pyramid of Cheops, the largest of the three at Giza, is estimated to comprise as many as 2.5 million limestone blocks with an average weight estimated at 2.5 tonnes (2.5 tons). -The entire structure was encased in a fine white polished limestone brought from the hills at Tura. -146.6 metres (481 feet) tall, and its base was 230.3 metres (756 feet) square. -The capstones (pyramidions) of all the pyramids were made of solid polished granite.
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