The gallery of Pre-Columbian art features pieces pertaining to rituals and ceremonial practices within each culture. Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century (“pre-Columbian civilizations”). The pre-columbian civilizations were extraordinary developments in human society and culture, ranking with the early civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China ("pre-Columbian civilizations"). Like the ancient civilizations of the Old World, those in the New World were characterized by the kingdoms and empires, great monuments and cities, and refinement sin the arts, metallurgy, and writing ("pre-Columbian civilizations"). This gallery will focus on the ritual and ceremonial aspect within the culture’s art. These ritual or ceremonial practices either marked a rite of passage in human life, initiation, puberty, graduation, death, burial, spiritual events, or weddings. They were depicted as events of communal worship. A few of these art pieces also involved sacrifice or offerings within the ritual or ceremonies itself. The artworks you will see are unique in their own way; for instance, the first art is the Otter pipe, which was used for spiritual purposes. There are three vessel art pieces, and a ceremonial seat; each important to the gallery. Lastly, the powerful, late Post- classic Aztec or Mexica culture in Mexico also produced some dramatically expressive works of art. These include the decorated skulls of captives and many impressive works of stone sculpture, og which Tlazolteotl, a goddess in childbirth, is a good example (“Art of the Maya”). All of the artworks reflects the intense belief and pride by representing their culture’s social and religious faith in each geographical origin. The theme chosen, “The Spiritual World: Ritual Objects in Pre-Columbian Americas,” is relevant to the culture’s art within the gallery because of the significance each art piece was to ritual or ceremonial practices. My hope is to pay homage to each culture, and respectfully expressing each art piece’s importance. "A History of the World in 100 Objects." British Museum. The British Museum. Web. 26 Apr. 2016. <http: / /www.britishmuseum.org /explore /a_history_of_the_world /objects.aspx#69> oundless. “Art of the Maya.” Survey of Non-Western Art. Boundless, 15 Apr. 2016. Retrieved 28 Apr. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/users/159928/textbooks/survey-of-non-western-art/native-american-art-before-1300-ce-16/mesoamerica-109/art-of-the-maya-487-53/ Denselow., Anthony. "A History of the World in 100 Objects." N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2016. "Jaguar Effigy Metate." Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Web. 26 Apr. 2016. <http: / /www.mfa.org /collections /object /jaguar-effigy-metate-516135>. "Museo Larco." Google Cultural Institute. Web. 25 Apr. 2016. <https: / /www.google.com /culturalinstitute /collection /museo-larco?projectid="art-project">. Pratap, Mohan, Dr., Shubha Banerji, and Vasundhra Sangwan. "Pottery from Ancient Peru." National Museum, New Delhi. Web. 26 Apr. 2016. "pre-Columbian civilizations". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 28 Apr. 2016 "Sculptural Vessel Representing a Scene Depicting an Individual Emerging from a Mountain." Colección Museo De Arte De Lima. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.