Life during the great depression

magine a huge dust cloud swallowing up your home to the point that it can barely be seen. Just like the picture above, this was the grim reality for many midwestern Americans between 1930 and 1940 during a natural disaster known as the Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was a series of periodic dust storms in the midwestern prairies created by wind erosion of the soil. The Dust Bowl severely destroyed the ecology of the Midwest, while at the same time forcing a massive migration out of dust bowl states that included Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. In this article, we will consider some basic facts about the Dust Bowl and then consider the different arguments about why the Dust Bowl occurred. Was this an unusual natural disaster, or was it a man-made phenomenon like global warming?
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) still exists and is the nation's largest power company. It is a federally owned corporation created by congressional charter in 1933, under FDR, part of the New Deal. It covers most of Tennessee, parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky and small pieces of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. It was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. During the Depression, the Tennessee Valley was in bad shape. TVA brought electricity to the region and helped modernize it. It brought economic development to the region. Electricity drew industry to the region. They also taught farmers how to increase crop production by teaching farming methods.
Migrant Mother” has become an icon of the Great Depression. The compelling image of a mother and her children is actually one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California. Seeing the photograph in the context of related images, understanding the purpose for which it was made, and knowing something of the photographer's and subject's views of the occasion amplify our perspectives on the image, and, at the same time, suggest that no single meaning can be assigned to it. Lange made the photographs toward the end of a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor for what was then the Resettlement Administration, later to become the Farm Security Administration. Her work was part of the administration's larger effort to document economic and social distress among the nation's agricultural workers and to advertise the agency's relief programs and the measures it was taking to address underlying causes of the dislocation. In 1960, Lange gave this account of the photographic encounter:
The Shanty Towns, known as Hoovervilles, sprang up across the nation during the Great Depression 1929 - 1941. They were built by unemployed impoverished Americans that had been made homeless and had nowhere else to live. By 1932, between one and two million American people were homeless. The Hoovervilles varied in size from just a few shacks clustered together to communities of over 1000 rickety shacks covering acres of unused or public lands. The makeshift shacks were constructed from unwanted materials and lacked basic amenities such as adequate sanitation and clean drinking water. All the Hoovervilles were 'eradicated' at the end of the Great Depression in 1941.
was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term 1933 to 1937 of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
unemployed residents who could not pay their rent or mortgages were evicted into the world of public assistance and bread lines. Unable to find work and seeing that each job they applied for had hundreds of seekers, these shabby, disillusioned men wandered aimlessly without funds, begging, picking over refuse in city dumps, and finally getting up the courage to stand and be seen publicly in a bread line for free food. To accommodate them, charities, missions, and churches began programs to feed them.
The Soup Kitchens in the Great Depression served free meals to hungry men, women and children. The soup kitchens were run by volunteers from charitable organizations and local communities with food supplies provided by benefactors and people in the neighborhood from their 'Soup Gardens'. Before 1935, as unemployed soared to over 25%,Soup Kitchens sprang up in every major town and city in America as there were few welfare programs to help the unemployed, starving and destitute people.
Hobo­ing was a spe­cial part of the Amer­i­can Great Depres­sion years. Although many peo­ple left their homes out of neces­sity, their expe­ri­ences on their own were often times adven­tur­ous, thrilling and more than interesting. I was able to speak to a man who spent seven years of his life Hobo­ing across the United States. From 1935 at age 14 to 1942 at age 22, he saw 42 states from a box­car. He remem­bers his expe­ri­ences fondly and they gave him insight to the real envi­ron­ment of a Hobos life, insight unat­tain­able from books
President Franklin Roosevelt dedicated what was then the world’s biggest dam. Situated on the Nevada-Arizona border, 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas, and stretching 1,244 feet across the Black Canyon, Hoover Dam took five years to construct. Built to control flooding along the Colorado River and provide water and hydroelectric power for California and the Southwest, the dam spurred tremendous growth in that part of the United States. Learn more about this engineering marvel, including why its name once sparked controversy, what happened when it was the target of an alleged German bomb plot and if any bodies are buried in its concrete.
was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal.
is a federal legislation in the U.S. This Act came into existence as an alternative for the farm subsidy policies. The Act facilitated in making price support compulsory for corn, cotton and wheat. The Act helps in maintaining self sufficient supply during low production periods. The Act also helps the farmers by reducing the production of staple crops and encouraging more diversified farming. Th Act a facilitates in making loans to farmers to purchase and store crops in order to maintain farm prices.
She is remembered above all for revealing the plight of sharecroppers, displaced farmers and migrant workers in the 1930s, and her portrait of Florence Owens Thompson, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California(1936), has become an icon of the period. Since much of this work was carried out for a government body, the Farm Security Administration, it has been an unusual test case of American art being commissioned explicitly to drive government policy. After the Depression she went on to enjoy an illustrious career in photo-journalism during its hey-day, working for leading magazines such as Fortune and Life, and traveling widely throughout Asia, Latin America, and Egypt. She was instrumental in assembling the "Family of Man" exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1959, a renowned celebration of struggling post-war humanity.
. Although critics called the WPA an extension of the dole or a device for creating a huge patronage army loyal to the Democratic Party, the stated purpose of the program was to provide useful work for millions of victims of the Great Depression and thus to preserve their skills and self-respect. The economy would in turn be stimulated by the increased purchasing power of the newly employed, whose wages under the program ranged from $15 to $90 per month.
"The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. The Act does not, on the other hand, cover those workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers."
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) still exists and is the nation's largest power company. It is a federally owned corporation created by congressional charter in 1933, under FDR, part of the New Deal. It covers most of Tennessee, parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky and small pieces of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. It was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. During the Depression, the Tennessee Valley was in bad shape. TVA brought electricity to the region and helped modernize it. It brought economic development to the region. Electricity drew industry to the region. They also taught farmers how to increase crop production by teaching farming methods.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent agency of the United States (U.S.) federal government that preserves public confidence in the banking system by insuring deposits. The FDIC is headquartered in Washington, DC, with several regional offices and numerous field offices throughout the U.S. The agency is managed by a five-person Board of Directors, all of whom are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, with no more than three being from the same political party.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a government commission created by Congress to regulate the securities markets and protect investors. In addition to regulation and protection, it also monitors the corporate takeovers in the U.S. The SEC is composed of five commissioners appointed by the U.S. President and approved by the Senate. The statutes administered by the SEC are designed to promote full public disclosure and to protect the investing public against fraudulent and manipulative practices in the securities markets. Generally, most issues of securities offered in interstate commerce, through the mail or on the internet must be registered with the SEC
federal program of old-age retirement benefits and a joint federal-state venture of Unemployment Compensation. In addition, it dispensed federal funds to aid the development at the state level of such programs as vocational rehabilitation, public health services, and child welfare services, along with assistance to the elderly and the handicapped. The act instituted a system of mandatory old-age insurance, issuing benefits in proportion to the previous earnings of persons over sixty-five and establishing a reserve fund financed through the imposition of payroll taxes on employers and employees.
A political leader of the twentieth century, who was president from 1929 to 1933. Hoover became famous for his direction of relief work in Europe after World War I. He had been president only a few months when the Great Depression began ( see stock market Crash of 1929, stock market, and Hoovervilles ). A Republican, he was reluctant to use the power of the federal government against the Depression. Hoover tried to persuade voters that private enterprise could turn the economy around, but he lost the election of 1932 to Franklin D. Roosevelt. In the late 1940s, he was head of a commission to make the federal government more efficient.
Roosevelt was president from 1933 to 1945, longer than anyone else in American history; he was elected four times. Roosevelt, a Democrat who had been governor of New York, defeated President Herbert Hoover in the election of 1932. He took office at one of the worst points in the Great Depression but told the American public, “ The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” The early part of his presidency is remembered for the New Deal, a group of government programs designed to reverse the devastating effects of the Depression. He used fireside chats over the radio to build public support for his policies. In the later years of his presidency, he attempted to support the Allies in World War II without bringing the United States into the war. At this time, he made his speech announcing the Four Freedoms. After the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, the United States entered the war. Roosevelt began the Manhattan Project, which produced the atomic bomb, a weapon that after his death brought a quick but highly controversial end to the war. Near the war's end, Roosevelt negotiated the Yalta agreement with Britain and the Soviet Union. He died a few weeks before Germany surrendered and before the end of the war with Japan.
as an American author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books, and five collections of short stories. He is widely known for the comic novels Tortilla Flat (1935) and Cannery Row (1945), the multi-generation epic East of Eden (1952), and the novellas Of Mice and Men (1937) and The Red Pony (1937). The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Grapes of Wrath (1939),[2] widely attributed to be part of the American literary canon,[3] is considered Steinbeck's masterpiece. In the first 75 years since it was published, it sold 14 million copies
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