The 14th and 15th centuries were a period of change for art and for theology, as Europe transitioned from the Middle Ages into the Renaissance. The image of the Madonna and Child remained one of the most prolific subjects for artists and an anchor for European culture. Mary and Christ are painted as royalty and common people, as God and as flesh, and most significantly as a mother and son. Through Mary's shifting image we see the true scope of the Early Renaissance from flat and framed Byzantine iconography to portraits of the domestic and the scenic. Four archetypes dominate this period: Madonna Enthroned, Madonna in Adoration, Madonna as a servant of God, and the domestic Madonna. The image of a queen heralded by angels fades in popularity as the Renaissance progresses in favour of more intimate portraiture, often showing Mary holding up Christ or expressing her devotions in prayer. The Madonna and Child remains the most significant portrayal of Mary, who is a pillar of the Catholic faith and arguably the most popular subject of European art. As a Queen of Heaven or a woman of faith, Mary remains above all else a Mother of God.