The Seoul City Wall surrounds downtown Seoul, the capital of Korea. King Taejo, the founder of Joseon Kingdom 14th century, designated Seoul as the capital of the newly established dynasty. The Seoul City Wall was built for more efficient operation and the defense of the newly designated capital. The first portion of the work was finished in 1396. For more efficient management of the capital, the area within the walls was distinguished from the areas lying outside them. To reinforce the defense of the capital, Bukhansanseong Fortress was built to the north of the Wall and Namhansanseong Fortress to the south of the Han River in the 17th century. The 18 km-long Seoul City Wall was built along the ridge of Seoul’s four inner mountains (i.e., Baegaksan, Naksan, Namsan, and Inwangsan). At present, a 12-km section of the wall is designated as Historic Site No.10 and is protected accordingly, along with the gates, water gates, and signal fire mounds. Certain sections of the walls have undergone extensive restoration work, having sustained damage or been entirely destroyed at various times in the city’s past.