Line: Implied || Brullov uses line of sight to create an implied line in this painting. Seven figures in the lower left and two figures toward the middle/right gaze toward the upper right area of the painting where the volcanic eruption is taking place and two prominent statues have begun to topple over.
Line: Actual || Os Gemeôs make use of an actual line which leads the eye through the painting from left to right. This begins with the railroad track on the left, and after the track reaches its vanishing point the line continues with the tree trunk/branch that curves back around to the front of the right side of the painting.
Shape: Geometric || Kupka explores geometric shapes in this piece by painting a variety of triangles, trapezoids, parallelograms, and rhombi in cool blues and contrasting red. The geometric shapes almost appear to follow some sort of pattern but upon closer examination, you can see that it’s fairly random with every space filled with one of these specific shapes.
Shape: Organic || Although the landscape and objects within this painting are less-defined with cloudy, rough-looking edges rather than smooth and clear, it is still possible to see what these organic shapes represent: a tree in the foreground and an aqueduct or bridge in the distance.
Color: Complementary || The dominant colors employed in this painting are the prime color red and its complement, green, which is a combination of the other two prime colors, blue and yellow. While the figures in the painting clearly feature these two colors, the artist goes on to include shades of red within skin tone and both colors within the background.
Color: Analogous || This piece features a great deal of green and yellow—analogous colors which are situated side-by-side on the color wheel. The archer in green is juxtaposed with the archer in yellow in the same way that these two colors are juxtaposed on the color wheel. The same relationship is present in the ground and foliage in the background.
Color: Arbitrary || This painting features several figures painted mostly in unnatural colors: blue, red, and pink horses, a yellow lion, and a human figure with purplish coloring. This exemplifies the use of arbitrary coloring, which is not the object’s true color in the natural world, but these blue horses and the purple human figure seem to evoke some degree of sadness or remorse.
Color: Perceptual || Kuindzhi created his view of the Dnieper River as it is bathed in the moonlight without romanticized coloring, exactly the way it appeared to his eyes. Shadowy darkness surrounds the main scene with shades of red where dim light, perhaps from fire or atmospheric reflections may lie, and the clouds and water surface reflect the moon’s glow just as it might appear in real life.
Space: Illusion of Depth || Lemoyne cleverly arranges the figures in this painting, overlapping those in larger proportion upon those which appear smaller as they near the center, creating the illusion of depth. He also uses light and shadow to achieve this effect, with lighter figures appearing farther away or higher in the distant sky where they might receive more light from the sun.
Space: Positive/Negative || This pendant represents the positive space in a work of art; that is, the space it uses (here, what you can see in green, red, and yellow) is occupied with something. The space around the outside of the pendant and in the small holes carved within represent the negative space, where nothing exists.
Texture: Actual || The creator of this piece meticulously etched a variety of lines, spirals, and shapes into the surface of the funnel, creating a true texture which can both be seen by studying it and felt by touching the object. Its surface would not be entirely smooth because of this added texture.
Texture: Implied || The artist has used a variety of contrasting shades and tints of earthy colors, skillfully including highlights and shadows along with rough brush strokes to imply texture within the subject like a true rock face. It requires closer inspection for the viewer to see that this is a flat surface.
Value: Monochromatic || In this piece, van Gogh has selected a group of fruits with similar coloring and uses various shades and tints of yellow for the majority of the painting to create a skillful monochromatic composition.
Value: Hatching/Crosshatching || Gibson uses a technique called crosshatching here, where lines are sketched loosely over one another in perpendicular patterns to create shadows or shading density – under the table and chairs in particular. The darker and thicker the lines/crosshatching are, the more shadow or shading density there is in these areas of the drawing.
Value: Chiaroscuro || Gentileschi renders light and shadow in both smooth and dramatic gradients to represent the way light (or the lack thereof) falls over the forms within the painting, which is a well-known technique called chiaroscuro. This is especially prominent on the curve of the man’s shoulder and his musculature, as well as in the arms and faces of the women.
Pattern || The repetition of shapes (circles, semi-circles, squares, and rectangles) and colors (black and white) in this piece create a pattern which can be expected as the viewer’s gaze travels over the work. Here, the pattern seems a bit chaotic and disoriented, but because it maintains the same use of shapes and colors, it is still considered a pattern.
Balance: Symmetrical || In this painting, if a line were drawn vertically down the center, the elements of one side would match the elements of the other side. Although it is not absolute symmetry where each side matches perfectly, the number of cardinals in red on either side of Lucretia is the same and the man kissing her **** is balanced by the monkey below her **** on the right.
Balance: Radial || This octagonal mosaic features eight sets of images of man and beasts, divided by geometric patterns with a figure’s face situated in the central sector of the shape. The images and dividing lines seem to burst outward from the central circle featuring a man’s face.
Balance: Asymmetrical || Vecellio asymmetrically balances the **-close view of the Venus of Urbino in this painting with the inclusion of two other women farther in the background, which makes them appear smaller, and the small dog curled ** on the right. The red of the chaise and flowers are balanced by the dress of the woman standing in the back on the right.
Contrast || The artist employs strong use of lighter colors against darker colors, creating a vivid scene with high contrast represented in the rising or setting sun beyond the shady wooded area behind the castle.
Movement/Motion || Bruegel’s painting is packed with a temporal sense of motion. As they eye wanders through the piece, where nearly every figure is in the act of doing something whether it is falling, screaming, slashing, stabbing, flying, or blowing a horn, the viewer can easily imagine the chaos and activity taking place when it was all captured in a single moment in time.
Emphasis || Much of this painting lies in shadow and within the gloom of heavy, stormy-looking clouds in the distance, except for the three women in the foreground who are painted in bright colors. The artist has used these brighter colors and highlights of white to emphasize the importance of their role in this scene.
Scale || This stele featuring the Assyrian King Esarhaddon is built to such a large scale that the angle of the photograph presented here in this gallery offers an approximate view from a human’s height. It is over 100 **** in height, more than ten times the scale of an average man.
Proportion || In art, objects are often painted smaller the further into the distance they are. Here, Friedrich uses this principle to show the proportion of the three human figures in the center of the painting in comparison to the ships out at sea, which would naturally be much larger than the average human.
Repetition/Rhythm || Several attributes of each recruit in this painting are repeated throughout: the same style white cloth, dark complexions, a piece of jewelry, a turban of some sort, and dark, curly hair. This repetition establishes a rhythm within the piece, further enforced by each man with at least one arm at his side, and the first, third, and fifth holding a spear or stick.
Unity || In this painting, Vereshchagin chose to compose these thousands of skulls into one large pile, creating a unified subject for the viewer to focus on. Even the birds in this painting represent unity as they feed together from the skulls for their own survival.
Variety || Ushakov has included 10 medallions on either side of the central figure of this painting, with each of these medallions featuring a different saint holding a scroll. He uses both positioning and coloring add to the sense of variety within this representation.
Representational || Martin renders his idea of what Heaven might look like, using possible landscapes from Earth in order to represent the land. The inclusion of mountains, trees, flowers, waterfalls, and human-like figures are all representative of real, recognizable objects within our world.
Abstract || Although the title of this piece tells the viewer what he or she should be looking at, because the arrangement of the piece is broken in both shapes and colors, it is harder to define exactly what the subject is. This is defined as being abstract, as it depicts something real in a distorted manner.
Non-Representational || The subject of this painting does not represent any real-world object or thing, which classifies it as non-representational or non-objective. However, the colors, shapes, and positioning of elements within the painting may hold some emotional or psychological value for the artist or the viewer.
Role of Innovator || Janousek used metal sheets in an arrangement that somewhat resembles the human form, attached to a wooden board. In creating this piece, he has taken on the role of innovator by going outside the typical bounds of medium and form to create something new and unique, even positioning the figure’s leg outside of the boundary of the board to support this experiment.
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