Scarabs were amulets in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptian saw the larva's birth from dung or dead animals, they considered as “rebirth”. the dung beetle rolled its dung balls like Chepri.
Oppression of Kurds and Kurdish culture led to the emergence in 1984 of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a militant Kurdish terrorist campaign under the leadership of Abdullah Ocalan.
About 12 million Kurds, roughly 20% of Turkey's population, live in the southeast of Turkey. Turkey, however, does not recognize the Kurds as a major group and is therefore exempted from protecting their rights.
On Aug. 17, 1999, western Turkey was devastated by an earthquake (magnitude 7.4) that left more than 17,000 dead and 200,000 homeless. Another huge earthquake struck in November.
Construction on a $3 billion, 1,000-mile oil pipeline running from Baku, Azerbaijan, to the Mediterranean port city of Ceyhan began in Sept. 2002. The pipeline opened in July 2006.
In 1064 the Seljuk Turks, under their sultan Alp Arslan, invade Armenia - for many centuries a disputed frontier region between the Byzantine empire and neighbors to the east.
Turkish soldiers manning a machine gun nest during Army's 172nd infantry training maneuvers, pitting two, 100-man teams against each other in a two-hour, tactical war game.
NATO Foreign Ministers' conference heavily guarded by soldiers and tanks because of student riots against the menders regime.
British Commonwealth soldier hoisting his helmet on rifle barrel above trench top to gauge enemy response while other soldiers lie resting at his feet during lull in fighting w. Turkish forces.
After the reign of Sultan Süleyman I the Magnificent (1494–1566), the Ottoman Empire began to decline politically, administratively, and economically.
Alp Arslan follows his success here with an attack on Georgia, in 1068. These acts of aggression prompt a response from the Byzantine emperor, Romanus IV Diogenes.
Rum, meaning Rome, is the word used by the Turks for Byzantium (whose officials still describe themselves as Romans, in keeping with the origins of the Byzantine empire).
Throughout the 12th and 13th century Anatolia is in turmoil. Turkish tribes fight among themselves. The Byzantines try to recover their land. Crusaders, passing through and from 1204 occupying Constantinople, complicate the picture.
But the new and overriding feature is that Anatolia is now largely occupied by Turks. This fact enters the languages of the period. In addition to its many other names, the region begins to be referred to as Turkey - the land of the Turks.
Austria's unopposed seizure of Bosnia-Hercegovina in 1908 perhaps inspires the king of Italy with similar ambitions on the north African coast. In 1911 Italian forces occupy the Turkish provinces in the region now known as Libya.
After the outbreak of war, these ships shell Russian targets in the Black Sea. In retaliation Russia declares war on Turkey, in November 1914, followed the next day by France and Britain.
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