Haley's Colonial Art Gallery

   In colonial times, colonists had quill pens, horn books, colonial currency or paper money, weapons in the Revolutionary War, flags, maps, stamps, musical instruments, and prints. To go deeper into colonial history, you could look through their art.

In colonial times, colonists wrote with feathers dipped in ink. These were called quill pens. To make one, colonists, had to get a feather from a bird, they needed hot, dry sand, and a penknife. They stuck the feather in the sand and used it for the quill. When they took it out, it should have hardened in the sand. The colonists used a penknife to cut the edge of the quill and sharpen the tip. Colonists valued these pens because they didn't have anything else to write with and they were lucky if the pens lasted a week. Sources: "History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website." The Quill Pen : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2016. "Slates, Crayons, and Quills: Back to School Supplies of the past." National Museum of American History. N.p., 22 Sept. 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2016.
Colonial horn books were a flat wooden board with a handle used to hold a piece of parchment paper at colonial school. To make a horn book, colonists got a wooden board, a cow's horn and sometimes used a piece of rope. The wood was for the board. The cow horn was flattened by sticking it in cold water for a couple weeks, stuck in boiling water next, heated by fire, and pressed by plates or machines to make it smooth and transparent. This was attached to the parchment to protect it from getting ruined. Sometimes, colonists tied rope to the handle to carry it around without loosing the horn book. Colonists valued these horn books because paper needed to be saved to teach children their alphabets and other studies in the future. Sources: "Hornbook History." Hornbook History. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016.
Colonial currency included Spanish milled dollars, British shillings, pounds, pence or colonial paper money. These types of currency could be used to pay for colonial goods. To make the currency, colonists used either, gold, silver, or paper. They made coins out of gold and silver and paper money out of the paper. Colonists valued different currencies because they were able to pay different types of money, instead of only British shillings. Sources: "Colonial, Continental and Revolutionary Currency." ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2016. "Independence." Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2016.
Colonists used many types of currency to buy goods or pay debts. One type was the colonists own paper money. Because of shortage of currency, colonists had to make bills of credit or colonial paper money for paying debts. To make the paper money, colonists used paper, leaves, and had a printing company. Benjamin Franklin, used his printing company to make this currency. He used paper for the money and the leave patterns were printed onto the paper, so that there wasn't problems with counterfeit money. Colonists valued this new currency because it was the first printed money in the colonies and it was a different currency than Britain's shillings. Sources: "Colonial, Continental and Revolutionary Currency." ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2016. "The History of American Currency." U.S. Currency Education Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2016.
Some weapons used in the Revolutionary War were, the musket, bayonet, cannon, rifles, pistols, and sabers. They used the muskets for shooting three to four shots a minute, the bayonet for a musket and a spear, the cannons shot solid shells and grapeshot straight at the enemies, and rifles, sabers, and pistols were used if you were riding a horse. These weapons made it easier for colonists to fire at the British and by knowing which weapons were good to fire at specific times. Sources: "American Revolution." For Kids: Weapons and Battle Tactics. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016. "Weapons of the American Revolution - Artillery." Weapons of the American Revolution - Artillery. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016.
In colonial times, each colony had their own flag. The flag showed colonists were they were. Colonists used wool, linen or silk to sew a flag. They sewed patterns or designs on a cloth to show were they were or where the people represented. There were many flags such as the Red Ensign, the Grand Union, the Gadsden Flag, the Continental Flag, the Betsy Ross Flag, and the Star Spangled Banner. In the picture of the stamp, Betsy Ross was sewing the first American Flag. Sources: "United States Flags, American Flags, State Flags, International Flags, Country and Sport Teams Flags, Flags Unlimited." United States Flags, American Flags, State Flags, International Flags, Country and Sport Teams Flags, Flags Unlimited. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May "A Salute to All Our Flags." Making History. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016.
To claim remember their claimed land, colonists, made drawings of the colonies or North America. This was their map. They used watercolor pen, ink, and elk skin or cloth. The elk skin or cloth was used for sketching and drawing out the map with the watercolor pens or ink. Colonists valued these maps because they were able to find and locate their claimed land easily. Sources: Onion, Rebecca. "The Beautiful Geometry of 18th-Century Forts, Built by Britain in the American Colonies." Slate Magazine. N.p., 07 Jan. 2015. Web. 05 May 2016. "Digital Collections for the Classroom." Maps and the Beginnings of Colonial North America:. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016. Fuechsel, Charles F. "Map." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 05 May 2016.
During the colonial times, colonists wanted a new way to pay for their mail before it was sent out. For this reason, colonies started making stamps for postage. To make the stamps, colonists used ink, paper, an etching blade, and a printing plate. Colonists etched the pattern on a printing plate, spread the ink on top of the pattern, and finally, it was transferred to a piece of paper. Colonists valued this new way of postage, because they were able to buy stamps, and instead of being charged when something was delivered, you paid with the stamps before your message was sent, depending on how much your mail weighed. Sources: "Stamps and Postcards." Stamps and Postcards. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2016. "Postage Stamp." How Postage Stamp Is Made. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2016. "History of US Postage Stamps." History of US Postage Stamps. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2016.
News traveled very slow in colonial times. Colonists needed a faster way to spread news, so they had made newspapers or prints to spread colonial news to other colonists or colonies. To make the prints, colonists needed a composing sick or an iron rule, wood, wool, leather, ink, a printing press and paper. The composing stick was used to form backwards letters or pictures. The wood was used for the wooden handles that were stuffed with wool. A part of these handles had leather ink balls. The ink balls were used for rolling ink onto the printing press. Finally, paper was placed onto the press and the pattern was transferred on the paper by the ink. This made a colonial newspaper or print. Colonists valued these papers because it would spread news faster than writing a lot of letters. It spread news to different colonies, towns, and people. Sources: Person, and Pegah Mor. "Printing and Graphic Communications 1700-1900s." Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2016. "History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website." Printer and Binder : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2016.
Musical instruments used in the Revolutionary War were for sending out commanding signals to the soldiers. The military instruments were the fife and drum. Colonists also had violins, flutes, harpsichords, drums, trumpets, french horns, clarinets, and colonial organs. These instruments were usually made of wood, brass, iron or steel. To make an instrument, colonists shaped a piece of wood or metal until it met the standards of that instrument. Some songs in colonial times were for religion. The songs also helped define the colonists that wanted a free country. Sources: "History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website." Musical Instruments : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016. Person, and Maddie Strimer. "Colonial Music." Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2016.
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