John Martin uses size and scaling to show how giant the cliffs in the back are compared to the falling people in the front. He also uses light and dark value to show the pit of lava and its reflection onto the shadowed areas of the landscape.
The scale of the trees compared to the scale of the buildings in the back create a sense of space. Also the lack of detail in the mountains compared to the trees contributes to the sense of space.
The great detail on the horse against the forest in the background makes the painting have a sense of depth to it.
The scale of the mountains in the background makes the piece have the perspective of a vast landscape behind the detailed characters in the center of the piece.
The length Icarus's legs are disproportionate and drawn out to make up for the distortion created by the position the person is in.
The negatice and positive 2D space is the only sense of depth in this piece.
The lack of horizon and lack of negative and positive space in this painting make it very flat and 2D.
The straight lines of the buildings and the slight curve of the drawn out, vertical track make the picture have a sense of depth to it.
The value of the light and dark makes this look like there is a vast range of mountains and a large body of water; the value and detail in this add large amounts of space and depth.
The artist foreshortens the legs of the deer and overlaps the deer over one of the hounds, creating a sense of space in the picture.
The one point linear perspective from the woman's head makes the room in the picture look very spacious. The overlapping red, however, makes the front of the room lack depth.
The linear perspective that Millais uses in this picture creates a sense of depth in the picture and makes it seem as if the forest is far off and will continue on in the background.
The overlapping of the people in this scene make it look like each person is farther and farther off. However, the man draws attention because he is the most detailed.
The long, horizontal road expands the scene and makes it longer and more drawn out.
The overlapping of the branch and the size of the trees compared to the size of the castle expands the landscape and makes it very large, with the castle in the distance.
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