A makeshift refugee camp on the route to Lahore, Pakistan. The set up in the background was typical for those who travelled on foot for all or some part of their journey. They set up camp using the little belongings they had set off with, mostly on bullock carts.
Charpoys (South Asian jute beds) were covered with fabric and fortified with hay. There were no proper arrangements for toilets or washing areas. Hence diseases like cholera and typhus spread rapidly, claiming many lives.
This image is from the collection of F.E. Chaudhry, the only known local photographer who captured the events at the time.