Historic innovations in technology covers the invention of tools and techniques to transform and explore environments. Technological change is a force for economic growth and societal change, which also affects social and cultural traditions. New knowledge acquired over time empowers people to reshape and improve their worlds.
The Institution of Civil Engineers is the world's oldest professional engineering body. Its global membership has transformed the world since 1818. The Candidates Circulars are membership application certificates which provide a unique biographical record of engineers.
The Candidates Circulars chronicles the engineer’s role in shaping civilization and a provides socio-economic insight into their backgrounds. The certificates record personal contributions to what has become known as the Industrial Revolution and the infrastructure of the Modern World.
Three giant glass plate negatives – measuring 1.35 x 0.94 meters (53” x 37”) – are understood to be the world’s largest 19th century wet-process negatives. These images record the view of Sydney Harbour in 1875, documenting the future site of the UNESCO world-heritage listed Sydney Opera House. Bernhardt Holterman was determined to promote his adopted home to the world through photography.
With Charles Bayliss they designed a 23-meter (87 foot) high purpose-built tower, turning the 3 meter-square (10 foot) room at the top into a giant camera. There, they created a series of colossal wet-process negatives capturing one of the world’s greatest harbours in photographs bigger than had been ever thought possible, and toured them around the globe.
Sydney Opera House, Sydney NSW, Australia
The Semmering Railway is a topographically challenging section of what is known as the Sudbahn or southern railway line. It made it possible to travel in comfort by rail from Vienna and reach the eastern foothills of the Alps in Austria in only two hours. It’s one of the world's first mountain railways.
The Documents on the Semmering Railway, from 1844-1910, detail the evolution of a major construction site and how the railway line’s, viaducts, and tunnels were built using engineering resources. They show technical innovations in the 19th century and the awareness that technical projects require meticulous documentation.
The Archives of Suzhou Silk from Modern and Contemporary Times cover technical research, production management, trading and marketing, and the foreign exchange of many Suzhou silk enterprises and organizations from the 19th century to the end of 20th century. They contain a large number of export trade certifications and pattern designs, along with silk samples with high preservation value.
These Archives have witnessed the change of Chinese silk industry from traditional workshop to industrial production; which reflect the East-West trade exchanges and culture changes of more than a century. The historical and international significance of the archives also echoes with the current exchanges between countries along the route of “Belt and Road” initiative.
The Landsat Program Records are recognized by scientists as the only accurate image record, spanning nearly four decades, of the Earth’s land surfaces, coastlines, and reefs at a scale revealing both natural and human-induced change in existence to users in over 180 countries.
The Records are obtained and continuously updated by sensors onboard a series of land-imaging satellites, since 1972. The data is critical to the discovery, monitoring, and understanding of changes to the Earth’s surface caused by climate, human impact, and natural disasters.
While fortifications have been built in Japan since the 8th century, many of those that remain today, such as Inuyama Castle in Aichi, date to the Heian Period (794–1185 CE). This era of Japanese history saw the rise of local lords and of the samurai warrior class.
The familiar style of tall stone and wooden keeps known as tenshu were developed in the Sengoku period (1467–1603 CE). Originally, these were purely practical structures, designed to be used by threatened daimyō, or feudal lords, in the vicious civil wars of the era.
Over time, these temporary military structures became permanent homes and acted as palaces. They became increasingly elaborate and decorated with ornamentation as the owners sought to show off their keen aesthetic sense as much as their military prowess.
Standing on the summit of Mount Kinkazan, Gifu Castle presents an imposing image, and it was famed as a stronghold. But looks can be deceiving. In the 16th century the castle was captured by just 16 men led by the samurai Takenaka Shigeharu.
Many castles continued to be used right up until the twentieth century, and some even played a part in the Second World War. The ruins of Zakimi Castle were turned into a gun emplacement by the Japanese army, and following the war, it became a US army radar station.
Sadly, many other castles were utterly ruined. Ōgaki Castle survived the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, but in 1945 the entire castle was destroyed by American bombing raids. The castle tenshu that stands today was rebuilt in concrete in 1959 to house a museum.
Want to know more about Japanese art and culture? Discover 8 Facts About Hokusai, a master of ukiyo-e
Let slip the dogs of art! First up is this faithful pack of hunting dogs in Pieter Bruegel the Elder's 1565 painting of hunters, trudging home through the deep snow to their small village.
The landscape might be beautiful, but these mutts steal the scene.
Amidst all the chaos of the house, the little dog has taken the opportunity to steal a slice of the pie.
Hogarth's faithful pug, named Trump, stands next to his master's own portrait in this ironic painting. Hogarth himself was often caricatured as a pug!
Trump appears in many other works, but this would be one of the last. Trump died in 1745 at the ripe old age of 15.
…but it does include one of her beloved spaniels. Queen Charlotte was a well-known dog-lover who also kept many Pomeranians.
Marc spent a long time on this painting, before the "pure colour relationship between the yellow, the cold white of the snow, and the blue in it had been accomplished".
Its little legs and happy tail blur as its little streamlined body skits down the pavement, swinging its leash.