A.K. Mozumdar (second from right) with Ralph deBit (left), to whom Mozumdar gave the name Vitvan at the end of their Master-student relationship which lasted from 1910-1918. Following his apprenticeship with Mozumdar, Vitvan lectured and wrote about the Ancient Gnosis for over 45 years and founded the School of Natural Order in Baker, Nevada, which continues to disseminate his teachings. This photo was taken during an on-board seminar and lecture cruise in 1922, near Oakland, CA.


  • Title: A.K. Mozumdar and Vitvan, Seminar Cruise
  • Date: 1922
  • Location: Oakland, CA
  • Story: In 1913, writer A.K. Mozumdar convinced a Washington State judge that as a “Caucasian” he met the requirements of U.S. citizenship. At the time, anthropologists classified Indians as Caucasian, and only Caucasian immigrants could be American citizens. But in 1923 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that no “East Indian” (or “nonwhite Hindu”) could become an American citizen, and Mozumdar’s citizenship was revoked.
  • Physical Dimensions: 5"x8"
  • Rights: Courtesy of the School of Natural Order
  • Medium: Digital photo

Get the app

Explore museums and play with Art Transfer, Pocket Galleries, Art Selfie, and more

Flash this QR Code to get the app
Google apps