In the ancient Egyptian world, amulets for good luck and protection were buried with the dead to ensure safe passage to the afterlife. These funerary amulets represent the four protective sons of Horus (the sun god): Hapy the baboon, the hawk Qebsenuet, the human Emsety, and the jackal Duamutef. Each of them oversaw one of the four different soft organs of the body, which were removed during the mummification process and then stored in coptic jars in the tomb. Flat and unembellished, the mummiform, shrouded figures are pierced at the head and ankle and would have been attached to a mummy's bead-net covering.
* Anne Bromberg, DMA unpublished material, Label text, Four Canopic Jars.
* Lawrence M. Berman, _Catalogue of Egyptian Art: The Cleveland Museum of Art,_ (Hudson Hills Press: New York), 1999, p. 379, cat. 287.