At the beginning of the eighteenth century the building and the Theatre, that would also be called Scientific Theatre, were in a very bad state. The idea of restoring the buildings lead to a complete reconstruction. The work was commissioned to Antonio Bibiena, exponent of a well known family of architects. Mantua was at the time under Austrian control and Antonio Luigi Galli da Bibiena had excellent relations with the imperial court. Furthermore, in 1767 the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria founded the Royal Academy of Science and Letters, later also of Arts, born from what was before Accademia dei Timidi. The tradition of high-level studies has lasted to this day. Following the acquisition of the complex by the Municipality of Mantua, the prestigious National Academy of Virgil set up its headquarters here, with an important library and an interesting collection of medical and scientific artefacts.