Édouard Baldus was originally a painter from Westphalia, living in Paris. In 1849, Baldus became a French citizen. He then began his work as a professional photographer and was one of the founding members of the Societe Heliographique. Baldus worked on many official commissions, including the Commission des Monuments Historiques.
The Commission des Monuments Historiques was established in around 1851 by officials of the Second Empire in an effort to promote French Nationalism by drawing attention to the country's rich cultural heritage. Photographic pioneers including Baldus, Henri Le Secq and Gustave Le Gray traversed the country, documenting its historic buildings.
In 1854, he and Fortune-Joseph Petiot-Groffier (1788-1855) went to Auvergne. Baldus was noted for his photographs of Paris, in particular those of the sculptural decoration of the Louvre.