A specimen of early printing of Tughra Calligraphy in the Subcontinent in 20th Century AC. It is in Persian language.
Historically, a tughra is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of an Ottoman sultan. The tradition started from the rule of Orhan I (1284–1359), the second Ottoman sultan. Later, tughras were adopted by rulers in other parts of the world as well such as those of Turkic states, the Tatars in Russia and the Mughal kings in India.
Tughras became an independent art form and were then produced as such as well and in a more popular fashion