This Hubble Space Telescope picture shows a comet-like object called P/2010 A2, which was first discovered by the LINEAR (Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research program) sky survey on January 6, 2010. The object appeared so unusual in ground-based telescopic images that Hubble was used to take a close-up look. This Hubble picture, taken January 29, 2010, shows a bizarre X-pattern of filamentary structures near the point-like nucleus of the object and trailing streamers of dust.
This complex structure suggests the object is not a comet but instead the product of a head-on collision between two asteroids traveling five times faster than a rifle bullet (5 kilometers per second). Astronomers have long thought that the asteroid belt is being ground down through collisions, but such a smashup had never before been seen.
The filaments are made of dust and gravel, presumably recently thrown out of the 460-foot-diameter nucleus. Some of the filaments are swept back by radiation pressure from sunlight to create straight dust streaks. Embedded in the filaments are co-moving blobs of dust that likely originate from tiny unseen parent bodies. Spectral observations recorded using ground-based telescopes suggest an absence of gas, which is also consistent with an impact origin.
At the time of the Hubble observations, the object was approximately 180 million miles (300 million km) from the Sun and 90 million miles (140 million km) from Earth. The Hubble images were recorded with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). The image was taken in visible light. The color in the image is not what the human eye would see. A blue color map was added to bring out subtle details.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and D. Jewitt (UCLA)