Proclamation of Independence from SpainCavite, 1898On 12 June 1898, the Philippine national flag was unfurled for the first time at the Aguinaldo residence in Kawit, to the tune of the national anthem played by a band from San Francisco de Malabon. Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista read the Declaration of Philippine Independence, which he himself had penned. Patterned after the American Declaration, it invoked the protection of God in heaven and “the Mightly and Humane North American Nation” on earth, dissolved all bonds between Spain and the Philippines, and proclaimed the right of the new republic to exercise all the attributes of a sovereign nation-state.Among the throng that witnessed the independence proclamation was Apolinario Mabini, a paralytic who had to be brought to Cavite in a hammock. He arrived on that very day, 12 June, to become Aguinaldo’s chief adviser on political and constitutional matters. Mabini immediately pointed out the grave implications of the absence of any written pledge of American support for Philippine independence. He opposed the unilateral declaration of 12 June, regarding it as politically unwise in view of America’s apparent intention to keep the Philippines. Mabini advised Aguinaldo to form and consolidate a competent government that would win recognition from foreign powers, and thus neutralize any American moves against it. But Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionists had waited and fought too long for independence to be postponed.