The developments and innovations of the Industrial Revolution changed the European toy industry permanently. Entrepreneurs adopted mass-production and assembly-line techniques, and major toy manufacturers replaced small cottage industries. These developments helped drop costs of production and made French fashion dolls popular in the mid-19th century. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, aristocratic courts and wealthy salons commissioned dolls specially and on a relatively limited basis. In the 1800's, however, specialized firms emerged and dedicated entire factories to doll production. Young girls delighted in their French fashion dolls, now available en masse. The industry flourished until the 1890s, when b퀌�b퀌� dolls, modeled after young children, eclipsed lady dolls as a plaything of choice.