In the 18th century, the discovery of elements sped up and chemistry became a science. The arrival of reproducible processes and electricity in the 19th century started the era of industrial chemistry. The combined progress of chemistry and metallurgy now provides an infinite range of materials.
Fluorine chemistry was developed in the early 20th century and helped improve the techniques used to produce aluminium and to enrich uranium. It also enabled the development of plastic materials like Teflon and fluorocarbons, long used for refrigeration.