In Panini's day, as in our own, the Pantheon was one of the great tourist attractions of Rome. Built under Hadrian in the 2nd century, this monumental domed temple has survived intact, owing to its consecration as a Christian church—Santa Maria Rotunda—in AD 609. Panini's depiction is populated with foreign visitors and a lively mix of Romans from all social strata who congregate in the Pantheon to pray, to chat, and to admire the wondrous architecture.

Trained in architecture and theatrical design, Panini manipulated the perspective to show a larger view of the interior than is actually possible from any single place. The viewpoint is deep within the building, facing the entrance. The portals open to the colossal columns of the porch and a glimpse of the obelisk in the piazza before the church. Through the oculus in the center of the dome, Panini revealed the bright blue sky flecked with clouds.

As Canaletto was to Venice, so Panini was to Rome. Both artists documented with exacting skill and vibrancy the monuments of their cities and the daily comings and goings of the inhabitants. In this case, Panini depicted the classical landmark that inspired the design of the Rotunda in the National Gallery's West Building.

More information on this painting can be found in the Gallery publication_ Italian Paintings of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries_, which is available as a free PDF <u>https://www.nga.gov/content/dam/ngaweb/research/publications/pdfs/italian-paintings-17th-and-18th-centuries.pdf</u>


  • Title: Interior of the Pantheon, Rome
  • Creator: Giovanni Paolo Panini
  • Date Created: c. 1734
  • Physical Dimensions: overall: 128 x 99 cm (50 3/8 x 39 in.) framed: 144.1 x 114.3 cm (56 3/4 x 45 in.)
  • Provenance: The Dowager Countess of Norfolk;[1] (Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 20 November 1925, no. 69); bought by (William Sabin, London);[2] sold presumably by him to (Count Alessandro Contini Bonacossi, Rome); purchased October 1927 by Samuel H. Kress [1863-1955], New York;[3] gift 1939 to NGA. [1] Oral communication from Charles Beddington, Christie's, 17 March 1993. [2] _Art Prices Current_, n.s. 5 (1925-1926): 29, no. 618. [3] The bill of sale for sculpture, maiolica, furniture, antique velvet, and several paintings, including NGA 1939.1.24, is dated 5 October 1927 (copy in NGA curatorial files. See also The Kress Collection Digital Archive, https://kress.nga.gov/Detail/objects/1109). The Panini was the first non-Renaissance Italian painting acquired by Kress (see Edgar Peters Bowron, "The Kress Brothers and Their 'Bucolic Pictures': The Creation of an Italian Baroque Collection", in _A Gift to America: Masterpieces of European Painting from the Samuel H. Kress Collection_, Exh. cat. North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 1994: 43, fig. 2).
  • Medium: oil on canvas

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