Ipu awa awa. Gourd calabash. This is a large gourd carrier with koko (sennit netting) on the outside. Its depth and diameter are similar in size. The gourd has been hollowed creating a large bowl. The interior surface is matte and terracotta in colour. Small holes have been left from mū (worms) at the base. The exterior is smooth with natural markings in darker colours across the terracotta coloured surface. The koko (coconut sennit net) begins from the pike (centre) of the exterior base and is woven to cover the gourd bowl. The koko has been woven upwards so it can be hung from a burden pole that would be carried across the shoulders when transporting this object. This could also suggest it was part of a pair. Its large size and design shows it was made from a bitter gourd and used primarily for carrying non-food related items.
This is an Ipū awa awa. The flesh has been cleaned out of a large gourd and dried creating a container. A koko (coconut sennit net) begins from the piko (centre) at the base of the ipū forming a carrier around the outside. It can be suspended from a burden pole and carried across a persons shoulders for the transportation of goods.
Ipū is a term commonly associated with the gourd. It has been intentionally cultivated and hollowed. Ipū have a hollistic role within Hawaiian history and culture. Physically, the ipū can be used to carry mea’ai (food) and ka wai (water) or to store personal items. They can also be used to produce kani (sound) for mele (song) and hula (dance). Spiritually the ipū also have a significant metaphoric presence in procreation stories.
There are two kinds of ipū: Ipū nui are a large variety of gourd and are associated with carrying food or water in contrast to Ipū awa awa which are the bitter variety of gourd. These are more suitable for holding goods or made for use as instruments in Hula. As one knowledge holder explained, “The Hawaiian people – we had 42 different uses for the ipū" – the most described across Polynesia.
There are other qualities that extend the physical use of ipū into the realm of the cosmological and the spiritual. The late Indigenous Hawaiian scholar and historian, Samuel Kamakau (1815-1876) portrays the cosmological role ipū played in the creation story through an exert published in 'Ke Au Okoa’,
“It was thus that Papa gave birth: she gave birth to a gourd, a calabash with its cover, 'he 'umeke a he po'i; Wākea threw the cover up, and it became the sky; then Wākea threw out the inner core, 'ka haku oloko’, and it became the sun; as he threw it up, the seeds became stars. Wākea saw the whiteness of the soft core, the 'pala haku’, of the gourd and threw that up, and it became the moon; the white layer, 'papa ke'oke'o’, of the gourd Wākea scraped and threw up into space and it became clouds; the juice of the gourd he poured into the clouds, and it became rain. The calabash from the seperation of the gourd by Wākea became land and ocean." (Oct. 14, 21, 1869)
Papa is the earth mother, and Wākea is the sky father. The story of them birthing a gourd and using its contents to create the heavens and the earth illustrates the abundance that ipū have continued to offer today. Whether this is through domestic use, cultural performance or cosmological stories, the ipū has continued to carry Hawai’i’s rich history and culture.
We would like to give thanks to the Hawaiian knowledge holders who generously shared their mana`o and sources surrounding the significance of the ipū.
• M.Beckwith, 'Hawaiian Mythology’. U H Press. 1970.
• Jenkins, 'The Hawaiian Calabash’.Editions limited. 1989.
• T.R.Hiroa, 'Arts and Crafts of Hawaii’. Bishop Museum Press. 1957.
• S.M.Kamakau, 'Tails and Traditions of the People of Old|Nā Mo'olelo a ka Po'e Kahiko’. Bishop Museum Press. 1991.
• Personal comms. Kumu Auli`i Mitchell. 14.03.2018
• Ipū awa awa (Gourd calabash)
• Koko (coconut sennit net)
• Piko (centre)
• Kani (sound)
• Mele (song)
• Hula (dance)
• Mea'ai (food)
• Ka wai (water)